bio 14

  1. steps of Hypothalamic hormones journey
    1. hypothalamic hormones are relaesed into a capillary network

    2. hormones travel down a "portal" vein in the pituatary stalk

    3. hormones excite or inhibit other hormones of the anterior pituatary to be released into bloodstream
  2. Image Upload 1
    • -HPG
    • *Hypothalamus-pituatary gonadal axis
  3. Where do we get the Y chromosome from?
  4. We all have a _________, what dictates who has potential to be a male?
    primordial, and the prescence of a Y chromosome
  5. Whats responsible masculinizing the hypothalamus?
  6. Image Upload 2
  7. Male pathways in the brain (2)
    -lateral tegmental field

    -medial preoptic areaImage Upload 3
  8. Female pathways in the brain (2)
    -ventromedial nucleus

    -Periaquedactal grayImage Upload 4
  9. Female rats have "proceptive" behaviors (flirting actions), what triggers it? (3)

    -ear wiggling

    *Progestorone seems to play an especially strong role in female procetive behaviors
  10. 3 components to the motivational side of sexual behavior
    - drive to engage in sexual behavior

    -anticipation of a sexual encounter

    -reward associated with sexual behavior
  11. (motivational component in sexual beahvior in rats) Female and male rats develop_______  for sexual encounters.
    conditioned place preferences
  12. Which NT is released in response to the delivery of rewarding stimuli?

    ex) food, drugs, sex
  13. Image Upload 5
    -The VTA and Sn of rats and oher animals will activate when they do work to get satisfaction

    -dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens is associated with food and other rewards
  14. Dopamine levels and sexual behavior
    dopamine levels are high when engaging in sexual behavior but then drop when the interest is gone
  15. (females want soemting different) female sexual behavior
    -they engage in appraoch and avoidance behaviors directed toward male to pace the rate of copulation which will result a pattern of vagincervical stimulation that triggers a neuroendocrine reflex important for pregnancy
  16. Phineas gage
    -was a responsible, respected contruction worker for railroad

    -after damage to the frontal lobe, he became a different person in his emotions.
  17. Areas of our brains appear to play a particularly...
    important role in emotion
  18. Experiment of Bard
    -"sham rage"

    -removed a cats cortex which resulted in overly aggressive behavior from the cat that wasnt being directed to anyoneImage Upload 6Image Upload 7
  19. Hypothalamus appears to be critical for ________ and the role of the _________ is to inhibit these reponses as well as direct them
    aggressive behaviors, cortex

    *prove: when they didnt cut the hypothalamus they didnt have sham rage but when they did they did have sham rage
  20. Electrical stimulation of specific regions of_________ leads to the expression of aspects of emotion.
    hypothalamus (medial hypothalamus)

    *they trigger "affective attack"
  21. Dr James Paypez work
    -proposed a circuit

    -emotions are expressed by inputs of a variety of structures on hypothalamus

    -emotions are experienced by inputs of a variety of structures on the cortex

    *structures involved in processing of emotion, LIMBIC SYSTEM
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  23. Where did stress come from? and what was it referred to as?
    Hans Seyle, "the weight of all the wear and tear caused by life"
  24. when do we experience stress?
    when the body is exposed to harm or threat
  25. Seyle's 3 phases "General adaption syndrome"
    -alarm reaction

    -adaptation stage

    -exhaustion phase
  26. (seyles 3 pahses GAS) 1. Alarm reaction
    alarm reaction to the stressor is the initial response
  27. (seyles 3 pahses GAS) 2. Adaptation stage
    • activation of appropriate response systems to bring the body back to a normal state.
    • *Homeostasis
  28. (seyles 3 pahses GAS) 3. Exhaustion phase
    in response to prolonged stress leads to increased susceptibility to disease
  29. Stressful stimuli activate the_________ which in turn activates_______ to promote_________
    hypothalamus, adrenal glands, secretions
  30. 2 ways in which hypothalamus activates the adrenals

    - hormonal
  31. Where are the adrenal glands located?
    just above the kidneys
  32. 2 portions of the adrenal glands

  33. (portions of adrenal glands) Cortex
    secretes hormones: cortisol, androgens, and estrogens
  34. (portions of adrenal glands) Medulla
    secretes: norepinephrine and epinephrine
  35. (ways of activating adrenals) Hormonal response steps (3)
    -hypothalamus releases cortocotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

    -CRH stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from cells in anterior pit. gland

    -ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release cortisol(steroid hormone)

    *HPA axis
  36. negative feed back occurs to...
    maintain homeostasis
  37. (ways of activating adrenals) Neural response steps (2)
    -autonomic nervous system

    -neurons of the hypothalamus project to ganglion of sympathetic nervous system which then innervate the adrenal medulla to cause the release of norepinephrine and epinephrineImage Upload 9
  38. Image Upload 10
  39. Stress activates both _______ and ________ responses
    neural , hormone
  40. (Results of activation of adrenals) Cortisol (3)
    -increases blood pressure

    -increases blood sugar level

    -suppresses immune function...immune response causes inflammation so cortisol suppresses inflamation
  41. (Results of activation of adrenals) Epinephrine and Norepinephrine (2)
    - increase heart rate

    -increase blood pressure
  42. (long term stress) Holding position in dominance hierarchy is stressful
    • -they are always watchign their back for challengers
    • *but get most/all the resources available
  43. (social hierarchy) Chronic social stress results (3)
    • -stress suppreses testosterone levels
    • *subordinates have testes reduced in size

    -shorter life span

    -lower body weight
Card Set
bio 14
emotions and stress, small part of sex differentation and sexual behavior