1. List and define the 4 groups of eukaryotes and give an example of each
    • Fungi: eukaryote, chemoheterotroph, chitin cell walls, decomposers, parasites/pathogens (yeast)
    • Algae: Most photoautotrophs, unicellular/filamentous/multicellular, found mostly in aquatic environments
    • Protozoa: unicellular, chemoheterotrophic, few species pathogenic, free-living OR associated with other organisms, repoduce asxually by fission/budding/schizogony or sexually by conjugation
    • Helminths: free-living or parasitic worms, have organ systems, life cycle may involve many hosts, dioecious or monoecious (hermaphroditic)
  2. List the defining characteristics of fungi and give 2 examples
    • Eukarotic
    • Chemoheretrophs
    • Chitin cell walls
    • Important decomposers
    • Parasites/pathogens (~100 species)
    • Can be dimorphic for yeast form/mold form
    • Yeasts: unicellular, facultative anaerobes, fission/budding
    • Molds: multicellular, filamentous, fungal thallusconsisting of hyphae
  3. Describe 5 types of mycoses
    • Mycoses: fungal disease, usually chronic and difficult to treat (antibiotics won't work)
    • Systematic mycoses: infection deep within the body
    • Subcutaneous mycoses: infection beneath the skin
    • Cutaneous mycoses: infection of hair, skin, or nails
    • Opportunistic mycoses: caused by normal microbiota
    • Superficial mycoses: hair shafts and epidermal cells
  4. Describe fungal benefits to humans
    • Saccharomyces cerevisiae: used to make bread and wine, proteins (Hep B vaccine)
    • Candida oleophila: prevents other fungal growth on crops
    • Taxomyces: used to produce taxol (anticancer)
  5. List the defining characters of algae and give 2 examples
    • Photoautotrophs
    • Unicellular, filamentous, or multicellular
    • Most are not pathogens
    • Found mosty in aquatic environments (location depends on nutrient availability, wavelengths of light required, and surface to grow on)
    • Types: green algae, brown algae, and red algae
  6. Describe the algal benefits to humans
    Algae is a primary producer (fixes CO2) and is responsible for 80% of earths O2 supply
  7. List the defining characteristics of protoza and give 2 examples
    • Unicellular
    • Chemoheterotrophic
    • Few species are pathogens
    • Free-living or in association with other organisms
    • Reproduce asexually by fission, budding, or schizogony
    • Reproduce sexually by conjugation
    • Some produce cysts under adverse conditions
    • Entamoeba histolytica: causes amoebic dysentary
    • Trichonomas vaginalis: causes genital infection and UTI
  8. List the defining characteristics of helminths and give two examples
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Free living or parasitic worms
    • Have organ systems
    • Life cycle may involve many hosts
    • Monoecious (hermaphroditic)¬†or dioecious
    • Trematodes (flukes): leaf-shaped body with ventral and oral suckers, blood flukes burrow through skin and cause damage to blood vessels, liver, etc
    • Nematodes: rounda and tapered at one end, have complet digestive system, free-living OR parasties, infect humans as eggs OR larvae
  9. Describe the characteristics and life cycles of roundworms and tapeworms
    • Roundworms (Nematodes)
    • Egg infection: Pinworm infects as egg, hatches in small intestine
    • Larvae infection: Hook worm penetrates skin, Tichinella must be ingested, Dirofilaria uses a vector
    • Tapeworms (Cestodes)
    • Head has suckers for attachment
    • No digestive system (food absorbed through cuticles)
    • Proglottids contain male and female reproductive organs, they are shed and excreted and will go on to infect others
  10. Differentiate between an intermediate host and a definitive host (helminths)
    • Intermediate host: host that harbors the parasite only for a short transition period, during which (usually) some developmental stage is completed
    • Definitive host: host in which the parasite reaches maturity and, if possible, reproduces sexually
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