suggested waves can behave as particles and particles can behave as waves
This is called wave-particle duality
Who is Neils Bohr?
described atom as electrons circling around a nucleus and concluded that electrons have specific energy levels
Who is Erwin Schrodinger?
proposed quantum mechanical model of atom, which focuses on wavelike properties of electrons
- developed a compromise which calculates both the energy of an electron and the probability of finding an electron at any point in the molecule
- This is accomplished by solving the Schrodinger equation, resulting in the wave function
Who is Werner Heisenburg?
showed that its impossible to know or measure precisely both the position adn velocity or the momentum at the same time
The simple act of "seeing" an electron would change its energy and therefore its position
**When you solve the equation, you end up with a series of solutions that are repalted to each other= __**
quantum numbers
What do wave functions describe?
the behavior of electrons
What are the three components to the Schrodinger Equation?
Each wave function contains three variables called quantum numbers:
principle quantum number (n)
angular-momentum quantum number (l)
magnetic quantum number (ml)
What does the Principle Quantum Number define?
As n increases, __
As n increases, __.
Each value of n is generally called a __.
the size and energy level of the orbital
n=1,2,3,...
the electrons get farther from the nucleus
the electrons' energy increases
shell
What does the Angular-Momentum Quantum number define?
For an orbital of principle quantum number n, the value of l can have an integer value from ___
This gives the subshell notation: __
the 3D shape of the orbital
0 to n-1
l= 0 (s orbital)
l= 1 (p orbital)
l=2 (d orbital)
l=3 (f orbital)
l= 4 (g orbital)
What does the magnetic quantum number define?
For orbital of angular-momentum quantum number l, the value of m_{l} has integer values from __
This gives a spatial orientation of:
the spatial orientation of the orbital
-L to + L
L=0, giving m_{l}= 0
L=1 giving m_{l}= -1, 0, +1
L= 2 giving m_{l}= -2,-1,0,+1,+2
wHAT IS THE spIN qUANTUM nUMBER
The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that no two electrons can have teh same four quantum numbers
What is a node?
a surface of zero probability for finding the electron