Clinical manifestations of polyneuropathies: paresthesia
numbness, tingling, pins, and needles
Clinical manifestations of polyneuropathies: hyperalgesia
increased pain perception
Clinical manifestations of polyneuropathies: hypesthesia
- decreased perception of touch, pain, temperature, and cold
- usually occurs in lower extremities - more frequently peroneal and femoral nerve
Other clinical manifestations of polyneuropathies
- decreased vibration sense
- decreased ankle and knee-jerk reflexes
- loss of position sense increases risk for injury to extremities
What HLA antigens are associated with Type 1 diabetes?
- MHC Class II HLA-linked
- Research indicates one susceptible gene in Type 1 diabetes located in HLA-D region
- - DR3, DR4 alleles
- 95% of Caucasians with Type 1 diabetes have DR3 or DR4 allele or both
Is genetic tendency stronger for Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes?
- Type 2
- - Type 1 - 30-70% concordance in twins; only 5-10% of children of 1st-degree relatives develop diabetes
- - Type 2 - 90% concordance in twins; 66% have 1 relative with diabetes; 46% have 2 relatives with diabetes
What are common s/s of diabetes?
How are free fatty acids transported in blood versus triglycerides?
FFA - released into circulation bound to albumin
Criteria for diagnosis of diabetes from the American Diabetes Association.
- Random blood glucose >200 mg/dL associated with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia
- - polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia
- Fasting blood glucose >125 mg/dL on @ least 2 tests
- Glucose tolerance test - value @ 2 hours >200 mg/dL or more
- - impaired glucose tolerance indicated by 2 hour glucose between 140-200 mg/dL