1. all genese present in a cell or virus
  2. specific set of genes an organism possesses
  3. set of observable characteristics
  4. who injected dead virulent pneumococci and live non-virulent bacteria into mice
  5. who radiolabled t2 virus protien coats with s35 and dna with p32 to find the radiolabled stuff inside e.coli?
    hershey and chase
  6. central dogma
    • dna makes rna makes protein
    • replication to transcription to translation
  7. what bonds link the nucleotide dna and rna together
    phosphodiester bonds
  8. how are dna and rna different
    • nitrogenous baes
    • sugars
    • single vs double stranded
  9. what bases do dna contain
    adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine
  10. what sugar does dna use
  11. what bases does rna use
    adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil
  12. what sugar does rna use
  13. 3 types of rna
    • ribosomal
    • transfer
    • messenger
  14. how do rna molecules differ
    • function
    • site of synthesis
    • structure
  15. in what organisms is dna found to be circular double helix?
    all archaea and most bacteria
  16. small basic proteins
  17. combination of dna and proteins
  18. T/F
    archae dna structure is similar to that of eucaryotic cells
  19. how is dna replicatino semiconservative?
    • each parental strand is conserved
    • two parental strands separate and serve as templates for synthsis of new strands
  20. what pattern does procayotic dna synthesize?
    bidirectional from a single origin of replication
  21. what replication does viruses and plasmids undergo
    rolling circle replication
  22. length of eucaryotic dna vs procaryotic dna
    eucaryotic dna is 1400 times longer
  23. what is that catalase for the synthesis of complementary dna strands?
    dna polymerase
  24. in what direction does dna sythesize to form a phosphodiester bond
    5' to 3'
  25. template
    directs sythesis of complemenatary strand
  26. primer
    whole dna or rna used to start the replication
  27. how many dna polymerase's does ecoli have
  28. what's the first step of dna replication
    • -dna A protien binds to dna A box
    • -hydrolizes atp to separate dna strands
    • -helicase separates and unwinds dna
    • -SSB (binding proteins) bind to keeps DNA single
  29. topoisomerase
    relieves tnesion keeping strands from tangling
  30. replisome
    complex of proteins that incules helicases, ssb protiens, topisomerases, and dna polymerase III
  31. primase
    sythesizes 10bp rna primer
  32. primosome
    protein complex that sythesizes the primer, part of the replisome
  33. step 2 of dna replication
    • -leading strand replicated continuously in 5'-3'
    • -lagging strand replicated discontinuously in short fragments (still 5'-3')
  34. T/F
    DNA replicates in the same direction as the template
    • False 
    • opposite
  35. okazaki fragments
    the lagging strand of dna, requires a primer for each segment
  36. when does dna replication stop
    when replisome reaches termination site (ter) on DNA
  37. how can the strands separate to stop termination?
    topoisomerases have to temporarily break
  38. basic unit of genetic info
  39. the nucleic acid sequence that codes for a polypeptide
  40. mRNA nucleotide triplet that specifies an amino acid
  41. reading frame
    organizatinon of condons such that they can be read to give rise to a gene product
  42. which strand directs rna sythesis
    template (antisense) strand
  43. where is the promoter located on the gene?
    at the start
  44. shine-delgarno sequence is used in what step
  45. the coding region on dna begins with what and ends with what
    • 3'TAC5' producing AUG
    • stop codon
  46. rna sythesis under the directino of DNA
  47. how is the rna transcribed from dna related to the original strand
    rna is complementary to dna sequence
  48. this rna carries the message for protein synthesis
  49. this rna carries amino acids during protein synthesis
  50. this rna is a compononet of ribosomes
  51. what kind of mrna is found in bacteria and archaea
    polygenic mrna
  52. transcription in bacteria is cataylized by what
    a single rna polymerase
  53. holoenzyme
    core enzyme plus a sigma factor
  54. 3 stages of transcription
    • initiation
    • elongation 
    • termination
  55. promoter
    rna polymerase recongnition/binding site
  56. Ideal sequences composed of the baes most often found at each position when compared to sequences of different bacteria
    consensus sequence
  57. How many basepairs does the RNAP recongition site have?
  58. another name for the RNAP binding site
    Pribnow box
  59. where the RNAP unwinds the DNA
    pribnow box
  60. leader sequence
    initially transcribed section that has a Shine-Dalgarno sequence
  61. Inititaion, direction of the template strand and the non-template strand
    • template is 3'-5'
    • coding is 5'-3'
  62. what is a transcription bubble
    something that moves with the polymerase as it trascribes mRNA from the template strand. Hybrid DNA/RNA inside
  63. Transcription termination
    occurs when core RNA polymerase dissociates from the template DNA
  64. some terminators in transcription need what to help with termination
    rho factor
  65. translation
    mRNA sequence tranlsated into amino acid sequence of polypeptide chain
  66. colinearity
    sequence of base pairs in DNA corresponds to the amino acid sequence of polypeptide encoded
  67. codon
    gentic code word that specifies for an amino acid
  68. code degeneracy
    up to six different codons can code for a single amino acid
  69. sense codons
    the 61 codons that specify amino acids
  70. stop (nonsense) codons
    3 codons used as a termination signal, don't code for amino acids
  71. wobble
    • loose base pairing
    • eliminates need for unique tRNA for each codon
  72. translation in protein sythesis
    synthesis of polypeptide directed by sequence of nucleotides in mRNA
  73. direction of protein sythesis
    N-terminal----> C-terminal
  74. site of translation in protein sythesis
  75. polyribosome
    complex of mRNA with several ribosomes
  76. Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase
    attatchment of amino acid to tRNA
  77. what kind of ribosome are in procaryotes
    70S (30S +50s subunites)
  78. what kind of ribsome are in eucaryotes
    80S ribosomes (40S +60S subunits)
  79. initiator tRNA used in  bacteria for protein synthesis
    N-formylmethionine tRNA
  80. initiator tRNA used in eucaryotes for protein synthesis
  81. Where does IF-3 bind to in initiation of protein synthesis
    30S subunit
  82. which two RNA's bind to the 30s subunit in protein sythesis
    mRNA and tRNA
  83. what does the 50S subunit do in initiatin of protein sythesis
    forms a ribosom mRNA complex 
  84. Elongation of protein sythesis
    sequential addition of amino acids to growing polypeptide
  85. 3 phases of elongation
    • 1. aminoacyl-tRNA binding
    • 2. transpeptidation reaction
    • 3. translocation
  86. peptidyl (donor P) site
    binds initiator tRNA 
  87. aminoacyl (acceptor A) site
    binds incoming aminoacyl-tRNA
  88. Amino-acyl-tRNAbinding phase
    elongation factor brings amino acyl trna to a site
  89. transpeptidation phase of elongation
    amino acid chain P site to A site by peptidyl transferase
  90. translocation phase on elongation
    • peptidyl trna moves form a to p
    • ribosome moves down a codon
    • empty trna leaves p site
  91. what aid in recongnition of stop codons
    release factors
  92. peptidyl transferase
    hydrolyzes the peptide free from tRNA using energy from gtp
  93. termination of protein sythesis
    ribosome dissociates from mRNA and separates, IF binds to the 30S subunit to keep it from reassocitating with 50S
  94. molecular chaperones
    proteins that aid the folding of nascent polypeptides and protects cell from thermal damage
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