Medical Teminology

  1. To reduce the angle between two bones
  2. Bottom of the rear foot, hoof, paw
  3. Pertaining towards the side
  4. Pertaining towards the head
  5. To increase the angle between two bones
  6. Pertaining to the head
  7. Bottom of the front foot, hoof or paw
  8. Pertaining towards the tail
  9. en
    within or inner
  10. cephalo
  11. malac
    bad or abnormal softening
  12. osteo
  13. megal
  14. y
    process of/procedure
  15. hepato
  16. man
    mental or ego
  17. esophago
  18. peri
  19. pylor
  20. sten
  21. osis
    condition of
  22. entero
    small intestine
  23. path
    disease and/or abnormal condition
  24. arterio
  25. athero
    porridge-like (cholesterol)
  26. myocardial infarction
    Correct name for heart attack
  27. artherosclerosis
    Nickname used for heart attack due to cholesterol buildup in arteries.
  28. myo
  29. ren
  30. cyan
  31. ovario
  32. salpingo
  33. hyster
  34. oma
  35. tumor
    growth, lump or nodule
  36. hem/em
    iron, hemoglobin, blood
  37. myelo
    bone marrow or spinal cord
  38. anterior
    towards the front - Only used in reference to limbs
  39. posterior
    towards the rear - only used in reference to limbs
  40. Superior
  41. Inferior
  42. Purpose of diaphragm
    To maintain negative air pressure
  43. plasia
    growth, development, nourishment
  44. hyperplasia
    increase growth or development
  45. hypoplasia
    decrease growth or development
  46. Aplastic anemia
    reduction in red blood cells due to damage of the bone marrow.
  47. gestation
    time from conception until birth
  48. fascia
    connective tissue
  49. tendon
    connects muscle to bones - has more blood supply
  50. ligaments
    connect bone to bone - very little blood supply
  51. 4 Cardinal signs of inflammation
    • (1) redness; (2) heat; (3) swelling; (4) pain.
    • Redness and heat are from increased blood flow that results in swelling which leads to pain.
  52. Inflammation leads to 
    • (1) Increased blood flow we get more oxygen (present in the RBC) and more nutrients in the plasma that we need; and
    • (2) (Most important) an increased level of WBC/leukocytes because phagocytic cells that undergo phagocytosis. 
  53. 2 types of phagocytic cells 
    the segmented neutrophils and the monocytes (in tissue called macrophage). 
  54. Image Upload 2
  55. Image Upload 4
  56. Image Upload 6
  57. Image Upload 8
  58. Image Upload 10
    Segmented neutrophil
  59. Image Upload 12
    Band neutrophil
  60. Spleen
    stores red blood cells and removes damaged red blood cells from circulation
  61. 3 types that go under the lymphatic system:
    (1)  Lymph nodes - specific structure made up of lymph tissue

    (2)  Lymph vessels – small vessels that carry material from one lymph node to another. Act like a drainage systems.

    (3)  Lymphatic tissue – scattered throughout the body not as organized. Lymphatic tissue called Pyres patches located in the intestines, also lymphatic tissue in the ovaries, uterus. Antibodies are formed in the lymphatic tissue. Tonsils are lymphatic tissuesthat help form antibodies.

    Lymphatic tissue and immune system are intertwined/related.
  62. 2 kinds of WBC Lymphocytes
    1. Small – round have a dark purple nucleus, clear cytoplasm. Found in Dogs, cats and humans

    2. Large – oval. Found in horses and cows
  63. Additional way to classify lymphocytes determined by a stain:
    • 1. B lymphocytes
    • 2. T lymphocytes (t-cells – keep track of for HIV)
    • Typical stain in veterinary medicine only distinguishes between small and large lymphocytes
  64. Define antigen
    • Antigens are foreign proteins .
    • Anti = antibody and gen =genesis=to begin/to start.
    • The only way to get an antibody being formed is you had to first get antigen. We know that it is an antigen because the T lymphocytes are coded by the thymus to recognize antigens as foreign protein versus your own proteins.
    • The T lymphocytes send a chemical message/a hormone to the B lymphocytes and the B lymphocytes produce an antibody.
  65. Common antigens
    bacterial, viruses, fungi
  66. Dog has hip dysplasia what position would you have the dog in for an x-ray?
    What type of x-ray?  
    Dorsal recumbency; VD x-ray (Ventral/dorsal x-ray) 
  67. 3 most dangerous surgeries
    • 1. Open heart surgery,
    • 2. Brain surgery and
    • 3. Salpingovariohysterectomy
  68. Oblique 
    45 degree angle
  69. Carpal joint is _______ to the elbow
  70. Carpal is ________ and the digits are ____________.
    proximal; distal
  71. Thumb is _________, pinkie is _______
    medial; lateral
  72. Image Upload 14
    Dorsal recumbency
  73. Image Upload 16
    Ventral recumbency or sternal recumbency
  74. Image Upload 18
    Right lateral recumbency
  75. Neoplasia
    • associated with cancer. Results in cancer – normal cells that grow in the wrong place because the go through continuous mitosis. They lack inhibition to stop mitosis. Start with 1 cell end up with 2 new cells because the original cell is used up.
    • Benign = over growth of tissue/mitosis stops.
    • Malignant- spreads
  76. Atrophy
    • A=without     troph= growth and development y=process of
    • But it usually means a decrease in growth and development. Major cause of atrophy is lack of use
  77. When do bones ossify in a dog?
    • Around 45 days, before that time they are still cartilage. Bones
    • are made of calcium phosphate that is laid down over cartilage
  78. Why would you do an xray on a pregnant dog?
    • (1) Good to know the number of puppies If only 5 are born and she is supposed to have 6. The stimulus for birth is live baby/puppy – can’t give birth to a dead puppy. The time from the next to last and last puppies may be 2 hours;
    • (2) to look at the size of the puppies and the size of the birth canal
  79. Which is a more serious injury – injury to tendon or ligament? 
    Ligament. Typically tendons heal on their own because it has more blood supply. Ligaments have very little blood supply therefore it is nearly impossible to get the ligament to heal without surgery. 
  80. 6 types of leukocytes
    • 1. Band neutrophils;
    • 2. Segmented neutrophils;
    • 3. Lymphocytes;
    • 4. Monocytes;
    • 5. Eosinophils;
    • 6. Basophils
  81. What is the treatment for a sprain/inflammation?
    Rest – If you are using that body part you get more blood flow to the area because action needs energy need oxygen from RBC and food from the plasma to form ATP

    Ice – helps to reduce the heat and the amount of blood flow to the area which helps with the swelling

    Compression – helps to prevent swelling

    Elevate – reduces blood flow.
  82. Paired sample. 
    Anytime you have a positive blood test, you should always run the test again in 2 weeks with a new blood sample. In the meantime you treat the animal as it was positive. The results have to be better that 98% to be accepted
  83. chrondr
  84. naso
  85. rrhea
    flow or discharge
  86. Pharynx
    empty space between the mouth and esophagus and between the nasal passages and trachea. It is used for both the respiratory system and the digestive track.
  87. Epiglottis
    trap door above the trachea
  88. Trachea
    Leads from the pharynx to the lungs. AKA wind pipe.
  89. 2 branches that bifucate off the trachea
    The right bronchus and the left bronchus. Together they are called the bronchi. 
  90. The smallest branch of the right bronchi is called 
  91. laryngo
  92. pneumon
    air, lungs
  93. oro
  94. stoma
  95. gingiv
  96. ta
    little or tiny
  97. esophagus
    tube that connects the mouth and pharynx to the stomach
  98. Entero
    • small intestine. Job = absorb food and water/digestion takes place in the small intestine.
    • Parvo virus (enteritis) attacks & damages the small intestine Main symptom of parvo virus is perfuse diarrhea because water is not being absorbed.
  99. Colon
    Large intestine. Job=holding facility
  100. What are the 4 jobs that the liver performs?
    1. Detoxifies poisons, Can't detoxify posions from the head and neck (alcohol, diet coke, sweets)

    2. Produces B-complex vitamins needed to make antibodies and RBCs. Liver takes the food (bright colored vegetables) we eat and makes B-complex vitamins.

    3. Produces Vitamin K that helps clot the blood when you have a tear or cut.

    4. Stores glycogen (polysaccharide – complex sugar stored by the body) 1st we use quick energy provided by simple sugars like glucose then we use complex polysaccharide that has been stored in the liver.
  101. Name 3 diseases that can damage the liver?
    Hepatitis, Leptospirosis, and Infectious Canine Hepatitis
  102. What procedure is done on a daily basis in a veterinary hospital that is very damaging to the liver?
     General anesthesia is very toxic to the liver. 
  103. After surgery what is one thing to advise the owner to do? 
    Feed 5 -6 times per day because they can’t store the glycogen
  104. Who eats every 2-3 hours? 
    Babies (immature liver) & birds (no liver). 
  105. What are 4 items that are not toxic?
    Water, Carbohydrates, Proteins and Lipids
  106. Pancreas
    • Located close to the stomach.
    • Job is to produce insulin and digestive enzymes. Most of the pancreas is devoted to producing digestive enzymes.
  107. Name the 3 enzymes and what they digest
    1. Amylase digests Amylose (complex polysaccharide (starch) found in crackers.)

    2. Lipase digests Lipids/Fats

    3. Proteinase, Trypticase, Trypsin digests Proteins
  108. Infection is caused by a ________. Common types are ______, ______, ________.
    Pathogen; Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi
  109. Troph
    To feed, to nourish, growth, development
  110. Ana
    To change, to modify
  111. Neutro
  112. Phleb
  113. Cyto
    Urinary bladder
  114. Tele
    From a distance
  115. Graphy
    Instrument that records
  116. chemo
    Chemical substance
  117. Therapy
  118. Rrhage
    To burst out, outward flow
  119. Rrhapy
    Surgical repair
  120. Rrhexis
    Tear or rupture
  121. viscer
    Abdominal organs
  122. E
    To remove
  123. Nucle
  124. Periton
    Tissue/membrane that lines the abdomen
  125. Mesentery
    Connective tissue in abdomen
  126. Con
  127. Histo
  128. Nephr
    Nephron - functional unit of kidney
  129. De
    To remove
  130. amina
  131. ureter
    Carries water, urea and other toxins from kidney to urinary bladder.
  132. urethra
    tube that goes from the urinary bladder to outside the body.
  133. urinary bladder
    stores water, urea and other toxins
  134. genetic
    present in DNA
  135. congenital
    with birth
Card Set
Medical Teminology
Veterinary Medical Terminology - Chp 2