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  1. Development of phobias - type of conditioning
    • Classical
    • (fear develops due to previous situation)
  2. Positive and negative reinforcement are what type of conditioning
    • Operant 
    • (-) reinforcement: giving kid candy to shut up
  3. Mother places a blame on her child because she is angry at her husband. Ego defense?
  4. An abused child identifies himself as an abuser
    Identification (modelling behaviour of the person who is more powerful)
  5. A returned soldier or a man who can describe murder in detail with no emotional response
    Isolation of affect
  6. Man who wants another woman thinks his wife is cheating on him
    • Projection
    • (emotions and thoughts are not transferred unlike displacement)
  7. A horny man now becomes a monk
    Reaction formation
  8. turning back the maturation clock, acting like a kid when dealing with situations (e.g. frowning and sticking out your tongue to a colleague)
  9. Teenager's aggression towards his father is now directed to sports
    Sublimation (mature defense)
  10. mature ego defenses
    • SASH
    • sublimation
    • altruism
    • suppression
    • humor
  11. ADHD presents with what lobe destruction. Tx?
    • decreased frontal lobe volumes
    • Tx: 
    • a) amphetamines
    • b) methylphenidate
    • c) atomoxetine (nonstimulant SNRI)
  12. Dx before age 18, presents with rapid, sudden, recurrent motor movements > 1 year, and can have also present with obscene speech. Dx?
    • Tourette's syndrome (tics)
    • associated with OCD
    • tx: antipsychotics like haloperidol
  13. age of separation anxiety and separation anxiety disorder
    • 1 year (12-15 mo)
    • 7-9 years
  14. Difference between autism and asperger's
    • asperger's:
    • normal intelligence
    • no language impairment
    • no verbal or cognitive deficits
  15. disorder in females, progressive worsening of verbal abilities, loss of development, ataxia, constant hand wringing
    • Rett's sydrome
    • X-linked
    • seen starting at ages 1-4
  16. marked regression in multiple areas of functioning seen after at least 2 years of normal development, more common in boys
    Childhood disintegrative disorder. 
  17. neurotransmitters in anxiety, schizo, depression
    • NE up, all else down
    • dopamine up
    • all down (NE, 5HT, dopamine)
  18. Korsakoff amnesia
    • mostly anterograde
    • due to thiamine defciency and destruction of mamillary bodies
  19. autistism, aspergers, rett's, childhood disintegrative disorder are under what umbrella of disorders
    pervasive developmental disorders
  20. rapid decrease in attention span and arousal, mental changes, hallucinations, abnormal EEG
    • delirium (reversible)
    • occurs with drugs with anti-Ach affects
    • (dementia has progressive memory loss without affecting cognition, normal EEG)
    • patient with dementia can develop delirium
  21. False belief despite facts: thnking the CIA is spying on you
  22. hallucinations associated with alcohol withdrawal and cocaine abusers
    tactile  (sensation of insects crawling on the skin)
  23. Hallucinations seen in narcolepsy
    • hypnagogic (when going to sleep)
    • hypnopompic (while waking up from sleep)
  24. Dx of schizophrenia is made; have at least 2 weeks of stable mood with psychotic sx, + a major depressive or manic episode
  25. disorganized schizo
    effected speech, behavior, and affect
  26. dissassociative disorder associated with sexual abuse
    disassociative personality disorder (multiple personalities)
  27. dissassociative disorder associated with trauma or war
    disassociative fugue: abrupt change to a new place with a new identity
  28. Manic episode time duration
    > 1 week
  29. cyclothymic disorder
    at least 2 years of depressive and hypomanic sx, but sx are below threshold to classify as an episode
  30. Anhedonia
    loss of interest
  31. dysthymia
    milder form of depression lasting at least 2 years
  32. atypical depression
    hypersomnia, overeating, mood swings, weight gain, and sensitivity to rejection
  33. Adverse affects of electro-convulsive therapy
    • disorientation
    • anterograde/retrograde amnesia resolving in 6 months fully
  34. non-pharmacological tx for panic disorders
    • electro-convulsive therapy
    • (tx: can use benzo: alprazolam)
  35. non-pharmacological tx of specific phobias
    • patient recognizes fear is excessive
    • systematic desensitization
  36. OCD is associated with what other disorder
    • tourette's (most commonly in boys)
    • OCD: patients are aware of their problem unlike OCPD
  37. PTSD vs. acute stress disorder
    • PTSD: > 1 month
    • acute stress: 2 days - 1 month
    • avoidance of stimuli assoc with trauma, and increased arousal
  38. time duration for GAD
    > 6 months for an unknown cause
  39. factitious disorder vs. malingering
    • factitious disorder for primary gain = medical attention, which doesn't go away
    • malingering for secondary gain = drugs, time off work; goes away after gain achieved
  40. Somatization disorder
    complaints in multiple organ systems (4 pain, GI, 1 sexual, 1 neuro)
  41. Conversion disorder
    sudden loss of sensory and motor function (paralysis, blindness) following an acute stressor
  42. defense mechanism assoc with paranoid disorder
  43. defense mechanism assoc with borderline disorder
  44. Cluster A disorders
    paranoid, schizoid (doesn't want friends), schizotypal
  45. Cluster B disorders
    antisocial, borderline, narcisstic, histrionic
  46. Cluster C disorders
    avoidant (fear to go out to make friends, but wants them), obsessive-compulsive, dependant
  47. Anorexia sx
    • metarsal stress fractures
    • osteoporosis (lack of estrogen)
    • amenorrhea
    • anemia
    • electrolyte disturbances
  48. Bulimia sx
    • parotitis
    • alkalosis (vomiting)
    • electrolyte disturbances
    • dorsal hand calluses (finger stuck in the throat)
    • enamel erosion 
  49. Transexualism
    desire to live as the opposite sex, through surgery or hormone therapy
  50. Transvestism
    • wear clothes of the opposite sex
    • purpose of sexual arousal, not wanting to change sexes
  51. which drug treats depression with insomnia
    • mirtazapine
    • a2 antagonist and 5HT2 and 5HT3 antagonist
  52. non-SSRI drugs to treat OCD
    • clomipripamine (TCA)
    • clozapine (atypical antipsychotic)
  53. antipsychotics for Tourette's syndrome
    • typical: haloperidol
    • atypical: risperidone
  54. constipation, miosis, seizures 
    drug toxicity?
    • opiods
    • tx: naloxone, naltrexone
  55. sweated, mydriasis, piloerection, rhinnorhea, diarrhea
    Drug withdrawal?
    • Opiods
    • tx: symptomatic, or a small dose of opium
  56. severe drug withdrawal causes delirium: "I think I can see ants crawling on the walls"
    drug withdrawal?
    definition of delirium tremens
    • Alcohol 
    • tactile hallucinations

    • 2-5 days after a last drink
    • hyperactivity (increased HR, tremors, anxiety, seizures) followed by hallucinations, delusions, and confusion

    tx: benzos
  57. mydriasis, impaired judgement, tactile hallucinations, prolonged wakefulness and attention
    Drug toxicity?
    • amphetamines
    • cocaine (with the hallucinations)
  58. hypersomnolence, stomach cramps, hunger
    drug withdrawal?
    • amphetamines
    • cocaine (has psychological craving too)
  59. Patient involved with the law a lot (belligerent), vertical and horizontal nystagmus, homicidality, psychosis, delirium, agitation, tachycardia
    drug toxicity?
    • PCP
    • (hallucinogen)
  60. mydriasis, flashbacks, delusions, hallucinations
    drug tox?
    • LSD
    • (hallucinogen)
  61. euphoria, paranoid delusions, perception of slowed time, social withdrawal, conjunctival injection, increased appetite, dry mouth
    drug tox?
    • marijuana 
    • (hallucinogen)
  62. drug user at increased risk for hepatitis, hemorrhoids, overdose, abscesses, right-sided endocarditis
    drug abused?
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