Customary ways of handling the routine matters of everyday life
Norms that people define as essential to the well-being of their group. people who violate mores are usually punished severely.
People lack resources to satisfy basic needs no person should be without.
Situation measured not by an objective standard but by comparing against others who are advantaged in some way.
Most excessive form of wealth, small proportion of people have assets in such abundance that a small fraction of it, could provide food, water, sanitation and health care for the 1 billion poorest people on planet.
Systematic process of ranking peopel on a scale of social worth such that the ranking affects life chances inunequal ways.
situation in which valued resources and desired outcomes are distributed in such a way that people have unequal amounts and/ or access to them.
social positions assigned on the basis of attributes people have through no fault or effort of their own (eye and hair color, religion and country).
Attained through some combination of personal choice, effort and ability.
A level of respect or admiration for a status apart from any person who happens to occupy it. (doctor,police,president)
Reputation that someone occupying an ascribed or acheived status has earned from people who know and observe them.
3 types of social stratification?
- Slavery- most extreme
- Caste- people categorized and ranked according to characteristics people have no control over and usually can't change.
- Class-people ranked on basis of acheived charcterisics, merit, talent, ability and past performance.
- Movement from one social class to another
- Intergenerational Mobility-loss or gain relative to previous generation
- Intragenerational-loss or gain over an individuals life
- Horizontal-change that isnt loss or gain
- Vertical-up or down
Functionalist view of inequality?
(Davis and Moore)
- Inequality is the device by which societies ebsure that the best-qualified people fill most functionally impotant jobs.
- 1. Degree to which occupation is functionally unique (few others can perform function adequatly)
- 2. Degree to which other occupations depend on the one in question.
Why does poverty exsist according to functionalist herbert Gans?
- Fill unskilled and dangerous occupations
- Provide low cost labor
- Serve the affluent
- Volunteeer for drug trials
- Sustain orgainzations and employees serving poor
- Purchase products that would otherwise be discarded
Conflict View of inequality?
(Tumin and Simpson)
- Functionaist perspective does not explain differences in pay by race, sex, age or national origin.
- Ask what level of compensation is really necessary to draw best people.
- Argue that in complex socities, difficult to determine functional importance due to interdependence (sanitation played larger role in 20th century health than medicine so garbage men should get more)
Symbolic Interactionist view of inequality?
- Emphasize how social inequality is communicated and enacted.
- Conveyed through symbols
- Negotiation process by which involved parties reinforce, ignore or challenge the inequality.
- Key variable for Marx how you earn income
- Bourgeoisie- own means of production
- Proletariat- sell their labor to Boug
- Finance aristocracy- source of income created from nothing without labor and without creating a product or service
- Class depends on
- Marketable skills
- access to consumer goods and services
- control over means of production
- ability to invest in property and other sources of income
- Class is a ladder, the top is the positivly priviliged property class bottom is negativly priviliged property class
- Uniform class situation only among negativly priviliged
Erik O. Wright
- Contradictory class locations
- Real income
How poverty impacts Inner city poor in U.S.?
- Inner city poor-
- Restucturing of economy from manufacturing to service and info
- labor surplus marked by women in workforce and boomers
- exodus of jobs fron city to suburbs
- jobs leave america
- Inner city residents lack parents, friens who are stably employed amdcan serve as ties to jobs
How poverty impacts suburban and rural poor?
- Suburban poor- outnumber innercity poor by 1.2 million
- pushed out of city when factories closed
- headed to suburbs looking for jobsand cheap housing
- Rural poor-
- concentrated in geographic ares with lots of poverty
- felt the decline of farming, mining and timber industries.
Problem with racial categories?
- Only one race
- Race not biological
- Varies over time and place
Human constructed categories that assume great social importance. Those categories are typivally based on observable physical traits (skin color, eye color and shape, Hair texture) but also geographic origin.
Subgroups within a society that can be distingushed from members of the dominant group by visible identifying charcteristics, both physical and cultural. excluded from full participation from society denied access to positions of power, privelige ad power
Process by which members of a minority group adapt to the ways of the dominant group which set standards to which they must adjust.
Melting pot assimilation?
Cultural blending in which groups accept many new behaviors and values from one another. produces new cultural system.
Ethnic or racial group that were forced to become part of a country by slavery, conquest or colonization.
Race from a sociological perspective?
- Sociologists talk of systems of Racial classification
- Process by which people are assigned to racial categories that are implictly or explicitly ranked on scale of social worth.
One drop rule?
American historical and not officially but explicitly present policy that says that if you have one drop of black blood you are black.
Race vs. Ethnicity?
Race- Concept which signifies and symbolizes social conflict and interests by referring to different types of bodies.
Ethnicity- the cultural heritage of certain groups of people.
Merton's diagram for prejiduce and discrimination?
- All weather liberal- Not prejiduced, non-dicriminator
- Fair weather liberal- Not prejiduced, who discriminate
- Timid Bigot- Prjiduced, does not discriminate
- Active Bigots- prejiduced discriminator
Prejiduce vs. discrimination?
Prejiduce- Rigid and unfavorable judgement of an outgroup that does not change in the face of competing evidence.
Discrimination- Unequal treatment of an individual or group based on things other than merit.
A biological concept based on primary sex charcteristics.
Social distinction based on cuturally conceived and learned ideals about approprate apperance, behavior and mental and emotional charteistics for males and females.
Why is sex as a biological construct problematic?
- Primary sex charecteristics may not match genes
- 5 Sexes-
- Intersexed- broad term used by medical proffesion to classify people with some mix of male and female biological characteristics.
- Transexuals- people whos primary sex charecteristics dont match how they feel about themselves.
Functionalist perspective of deviance?
- Durkheim defined deviance as acts that offend collective norms and expectations
- It is impossible for a society exsist without deviance
- 2 reasons deviance has an important function, ritual of identifying and punishing deviant binds community and second it helps bring about necessary change and prepares people for change.
Labeling Theory on deviance?
- Act is deviant when people notice it and take action to label it and apply sanction.
- 2 assumptions that guide labeling theory
- rules are socially constructed and rules are enforced uniformlyor consistently
Constuctionist theory on deviance?
- Focuses on way specific groups, activities, conditions or artifacts become defined as problem
- Claims makers- Articulate and promote claims and tend to benefit (politicans, marketers)
- Claims makin activities- Actions taken to draw attention to a claim (lawsuit, boycotts, letters to editor)
Structural Strain theory perspective of deviance?
- Valued goals of society have unclear limits
- people are unsure whether legitimate means allow them to acheive goals
- legitimate oppotunities for reaching goal are closed to a portion of society.
- 5 responses to structural strain
- conformity-acceptance of goals and means of achieving those goals
- Innovation-Accept goals reject legitimate means winning is everything
- Ritualism- rejects goals but adheres to legitimate means
- Retreatism-reject both goals and means
- Rebellion- rejects goals and means and trys to change them.
Differential Association theory on deviance?
- Exposure to criminal patterns and isolation from anticriminal influences put people at risk of turning into criminals
- Deviant subcultures- Groups that are part of larger society but whose members share norms and values favoring violation of larger society's laws.
Basic mechanisms of social control?
- Socialization brings about conformity which is voluntary
- Sanctions- reactions of approval or disapproval
- positive sanction
- negative sanction
- Informal sanctions-unoffical and spontaneous
- Formal Sanctions- expressions of approval or disapproval that are backed by law, rules or policies
Cradle to grave pipeline?
the idea that some people due to the structures of society and their opportunities in them are treated as if they will end up in prison.
the idea that certain attributes of something or of a group are essential to the essence of that group.
Organizing of social life around male-female ideas, so that people's sex influences every aspect of their life.
3 Notions that underlie sexism?
- People can be seperated into 2 categories
- Close correspondence between primary sex characteristics and things like intelligence, athletic ability, emotions, sexual desire
- Primary sex characteristics are so powerful they explain inequality
Point of view that advocates equal opportunity for men and women