Chapter 15

  1. what are the functions of the parietal lobe?
    evaluating shape and texture of objects being touched. understanding speech and formulating words to express thoughts and emotions
  2. occipital lobe
    forms posterior region of each hemisphere
  3. what are the functions of the temporal lobe?
    hearing and smell. storage of hearing and smell. understanding speech
  4. what is an important anatomic feature of the frontal lobe?
    precentral gyrus
  5. what are the functions of the frontal lobe?
    (higher intellectual functions)voluntary motor
  6. where does the frontal lobe end?
    ends posteriorly at a deep groove called central sulcus
  7. what is the inferior border of the frontal lobe?
    lateral sulcus
  8. frontal lobe
    lies deep to frontal bone. forms anterior part of the cerebral hemisphere
  9. what is an important anatomical feature of the parietal lobe?
    postcentral gyrus
  10. parietal lobe
    lies internal to parietal bone. forms superoposterior part of each cerebral hemisphere. terminates anteriorly at central sulcus. posteriorly at a relatively indistinct parieto-occipital sulcus and laterally at a lateral sulcus
  11. what are the 5 lobes of each cerebral hemisphere?
  12. what is each cerebral hemisphere divided into?
    5 anatomically and functionally distinct lobes
  13. what is the corpus callosum?
    connects the hemispheres. provides main communications link btwn cerebral hemispheres
  14. what are the 2 halves of the cerebrum?
    left and right cerebral hemispheres
  15. what are the paired cerebral hemispheres separated by?
    deep longitudinal fissure that extends along the midsagittal plane.
  16. what does the cerebrum enable us to do?
  17. where is the cerebrum formed from?
    the telencephalon
  18. what does the cerebrum contain?
    large number of neurons which are needed for the complex analytical and integrative functions performed by the cerebral hemispheres
  19. what do astrocytes act as?
    "gatekeepers" permit materials to pass to the neurons after leaving the capillaries
  20. what can diffuse across the endothelial plasma membranes and onto the interstitial fluid of the CNS to reach brain neurons?
    only lipidsouble compounds
  21. where is the blood brain barrier reduced or missing?
    3 locations in CNS: choroid plexus
  22. what is the cerebrum?
    the location of conscious thought processes and the origin of all complex intellectual functions
  23. what are the 4 cranial dural septa?
    falx cerebri
  24. what is the falx cerebri?
    largest of the 4 dural septa. sickle shaped vertical fold of dura mater (located in midsagittal plane) projects into longitudinal fissure btwn left and right cerebral hemispheres
  25. what are the 2 dural venous sinuses w/in the falx cerebri?
    superior sagittal sinus and inferior sagittal sinus
  26. what contributes to the blood brain barrier?
    both the capillary endothelial cells and the astrocyte perivascular feet
  27. what do tight junctions btwn adjacent endothelial cells do?
    reduce capillary permeability and prevent materials from diffusing across the cappilary wall
  28. temporal lobe
    lies inferior to lateral sulcus and underlies temporal bone.
  29. what is the tentorium cerebelli?
    (1 of cranial dural septa) horizontally oriented fold of dura mater that seprates occipital and temporal lobes of the cerebrum from the cerebellum
  30. what is the gap on the anterior surface of the tentorium cerebelli?
    or opening called tentorial notch (or tentorial incisure) to allow for the passage of the brainstem
  31. what does the blood brain barrier do?
    strictly regulates what substances can enter the interstitial fluid of the brain. keeps neurons in brain from being exposed to drugs
  32. what is nervous tissue protected by?
    blood brain barrier (bbb)
  33. what is CSF formed by?
    the choroid plexus in each ventricle.
  34. what is the choroid plexus composed of?
    a layer of ependymal cells and the capillaries that lie w/in the pia mater.
  35. what is CSF produced by?
    secretion of fluid from the ependymal cells that originates from the blood plasma
  36. enviromental stability
    CSF transports nutrients and chemicals to brain and removes waste products from brain. protects nervous tissue from chemical fluctuations that would disrupt neuron function.
  37. protection
    CSF provides liquid cushion to protect delicate neural structures from sudden movements. helps slow movements of brain if skull move suddenly and forcefully
  38. what are the functions of cerebrospinal fluid?
  39. buoyancy
    brain floats in CSF
  40. whats do all the ventricles contain?
    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  41. what is cerebrospinal fluid?
  42. what are the 4 ventricles in the brain?
    2 lateral ventricles (in cerebrum
  43. what is the cerebral aqueduct?
    passes through the mesencephalon and connects the 3rd ventricle w/the tetrahedron shaped 4th ventricle.
  44. where is the 4th ventricle located?
    btwn the pons and the cerebellum.
  45. what does the 4th ventricle merge with?
    the slender central canal in the spinal cord
  46. what are ventricles?
    cavities or expansions w/in the brain that are derived from the lumen of the embryonic neural tube. are continous w/one another as well as with the central canal of the spinal cord
  47. what is the small opening w/in the diaphragma sellae?
  48. what is the diaphragma sellae?
    smallest of dural septa
  49. what can the dura mater and bones of skull may be separated by?
    potenetial epidural space
  50. what does the epidural space contain?
    arteries and veins that nourish the meninges and bones of cranium
  51. what is the falx cerebelli?
    (1 of cranial dural septa)sickle shaped vertical partition that divides the left and right cerebellar hemispheres
  52. what are dural venous sinuses?
    do not have valves to regulate venous blood flow. large veins drain blood from brain and transport blood to internal jugular veins that help drain blood circulation to the head
  53. what is the dura mater composed of?
    w/in the cranium 2 fibrous layers: meningeal layer and periosteal layer (forms the periosteum on the internal surface of the cranial bones)
  54. what is the dura mater?
    external tough
  55. what is btwn the arachnoid and the overlying dura mater?
    potential space called subdural space. becomes actual space if blood or fluid accumulates there
  56. what do the arachnoid trabeculae do?
    extend through the subarachnoid space from the arachnoid to the underlying pia mater.
  57. what is the arachnoid composed of?
    delicate web of collagen and elastic fibers arachnoid trabeculae.
  58. what is the arachnoid?
    arachnoid membrane
  59. from deep to superficial
    what is the cranial meninges?
  60. what is the pia mater?
    innermost of the cranial menings. a thin layer of delicate areolar connective tissue
  61. what do some parts of the cranial menings form?
    some of the veins that drain blood from the brain
  62. what are the cranial meninges?
    3 connective tissue layers that separate the soft tissue of the brain from the bones of the cranium
  63. What is the brain protected by?
    bony cranium
  64. what happens w/in the masses of white matter?
    the brain contains discrete internal clusters of gray matter called cerebral nuclei (oval
  65. what is the external layer of gray matter called?
    cerebral cortex
  66. what happens during brain development?
    an outer superficial region of gray matter forms from migrating peripheral neurons
  67. what are the functions of the occipital lobe?
    processing incoming visual information and storing visual memories
  68. where does the white matter derive its color from?
    from the myelin in myelinated axons
  69. what does the gray matter do?
    houses motor neuron and interneuron cell bodies
  70. what are the 2 distinct areas the brain and spinal cord?
    gray matter and white matter
  71. when do the gyri and sulci develop?
    in the late fetal period
  72. what happens as the future brain develops?
    its surfaces becomes folded
  73. what does the telencephalon do during the embryonic and fetal periods?
    the telencephalon grows rapidly and envelops the diencephalon
  74. where does the myelencephalon arise from and what does it eventually form?
    arises from the rhombencephalon and forms the medulla oblongata
  75. where does the metencephalon arise from and what does it eventually form?
    arises from the rhombencephalon and forms the pons and cerebellum
  76. what does the mesencephaon do?
    the only primary vesicle that does not form a new secondary vesicle
  77. where does the diencephalon arise from and what does it eventually form?
    arises from the prosencephalon and forms the thalamus
  78. where does the telencephalon arise from and what does it eventually form?
    arises from the prosencephalon and forms the cerebrum
  79. what are the 5 secondary brain vesicles?
  80. by the 5th week of development
    what do the 3 primary vesicles develop into?
  81. what is the hindbrain called?
  82. what is the midbrain called?
  83. what is the forebrain called?
  84. what do the 3 primary brain vesicles give rise to?
    all the different regions of the adult brain.
  85. In the human embryo
    where does the brain form from?
  86. what happens by the late 4th week of development?
    the growth has formed 3 primary brain vesicles
  87. what is the term posterior synonymous with?
    caudal (toward the tail)
  88. what is the term anterior synonymous with?
    rostral (toward the nose)
  89. how many cranial nerves is the brain associated with?
    12 pairs of cranial nerves
  90. what does the outer surface of an adult brain exhibit?
    folds called gyri and shallow depressions btwn those folds called sulci
  91. How is each cerebral hemisphere divided into?
    may be further divided into 5 functional areas called lobes
  92. what is the cerebrum divided into?
    into left and right halves: cerebral hemispheres
  93. what are the 4 major regions of the brain?
    the cerebrum
  94. insula
    small lobe deep to lateral sulcus. lack of accessibility prevents aggressive studies of its function but involved w/memory and interpretation of taste
  95. what are the 3 categories of functional areas?
    motor areas
  96. where is the primary motor cortex located?
    somatic motor area
  97. what do the neurons of the primary motor cortex do?
    control voluntary skeletal muscle activity. axons of these neurons project contralaterally (opposite side) to the brainstem and spinal cord
  98. what do the left and right primary motor cortex control?
    left primary motor cortex controls the right side voluntary muscles
  99. what can the innervation of the primary motor cortex be diagrammed as?
    innervation of the primary motor cortex to various bodyparts can be diagrammed as a motor homunculus on the precentral gyrus
  100. where is the motor speech area located?
    Broca area
  101. what is the motor speech area responsible for?
    controlling muscular movements neccessary for vocalization
  102. where is the frontal eye lid located?
    on superior surface of the middle frontal gyrus
  103. what does the frontal eye lid control?
    control and regulate eye movements needed for reading and coordinating binocular vision
  104. where is the primary somatosensory cortex housed?
    w/in the postcentral gyrus of the pariteal lobes.
  105. what do the neurons of the primary somatosensory cortex do?
    receive general somatic sensory information from touch
  106. what is the sensroy homunculus?
    may be traced on the postcentral gyrus surface
  107. what is the primary visual cortex responsible for?
    located on occiptal lobe
  108. what is the primary auditory cortex responsible for?
    located in temporal lobe
  109. what is the primary gustatory cortex responsible f
    in insula
  110. what is the primary olfactory cortex responsible for?
    located in temporal lobe
  111. what are association areas?
    integrate new sensory inputs w/memories of past experiences.
  112. what is the premotor cortex?
    somatic motor association area
  113. what is the somatosensory association area?
    located in parietal lobe and lies posterior to primary somatosensory cortex. interprets sensory information. responsible for integratng and interpreting sensations to determine texture
  114. what is the auditory association area?
    located w/in temporal lobe
  115. what is the visual association area?
    located in occipital lobe
  116. what are 2 functional brain regions?
    Wernicke area and gnostic area
  117. what is the Wernicke area?
    (functional brain region) located only w/in left hemisphere
  118. what is the gnostic area?
    common integrative area
  119. what are high order processing areas?
    other association areas. process incoming information from several different associtation areas
  120. what is central white matter composed of?
    lies deep to gray matter of cerebral cortex. composed of myelinated axons.
  121. what are the 3 tracts?
    association tracts
  122. what are association tracts?
    connect different regions of the cerebral cortex w/in the same hemisphere.
  123. what are commissural tracts?
    extend btwn the cerebral hemispheres through axonal bridges called commissures.
  124. what are projection tracts?
    link the cerebral cortex to the posterior brain regions and the spinal cord.
  125. what are cerebral nuclei?
    basal nuclei
  126. what are the components of the cerebral nuclei?
    caudate nucleus
  127. what does the caudate nucleus produce?
    when person walks
  128. what does the amygdaloid body do?
    participates in the expression of emotions
  129. what does the putamen do?
    controlling muscular movement at the subconscious level
  130. what does the globus pallidus do?
    both excites and inhibits the activites of the thalamus to contro and adjust muscle tone
  131. what is the claustrum?
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Chapter 15
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