Lee's A&P Test 3

  1. hairs are nonliving structures produced in organs called...
    Hair Follicles
  2. Surrounds the base of each hair follicle; as a result, you can feel the movement of every shaft of hair
    Root Hair Plexus
  3. Hair that develops within embryo development
  4. Peach Fuzz; Thin hairs
    Vellus Hars
  5. Heavy more deeply pigmented hairs; sometimes curly
    Terminal Hairs
  6. Secrete their productions into hair follicles
    Apocrine sweat glands
  7. Coiled tubular glands that discharge their secretions directly onto the skin
    Merocrine sweat glands
  8. Functions of Merocrine sweat gland activity:
    • Cooling of the skin
    • Excretion of water and electrolytes
    • Provide protection from environmental hazards
  9. The mammary glands are anatomically related to what glands?
    Apocrine sweat glands
  10. Nail production occurs where?
    At the Nail Root
  11. Repair of injury to the integument Includes:
    • 1. Inflammatory phase
    • 2. Migratory Phase
    • 3. Proliferation Phase
    • 4. Maturation Phase
  12. 5 Primary functions of the skeletal system:
    • Support, Storage of minerals & lipids,
    • Blood cell production, Protection, Leverage
  13. Mature bone cells that make up most of the cell population; maintains bone matrix; repairs damaged bone
  14. Immature bone cell that secretes organic components of matrix
  15. Multinucleate cell that secretes acids and enzymes to dissolve bone matrix
  16. Stem cell whose devisions produce osteoblasts
    Osteoprogenitor cells
  17. Ossification of hyaline cartilage is called
    Endochondrial ossification
  18. Ossification of a fibrous connective tissue forms What
    Dermal Bones
  19. Minerals are recycled within the bone matrix in a process called...
    Bone Remodeling
  20. Synthesized in kidneys; essential for calcium and phosphate ion absorbtion
  21. Reguired for key enzymatic reaction in collagen synthesis, and Osteoblast differentiation
    Vitamin C
  22. Calcium level increases 30% from average
    Muscle cells become unresponsive
  23. Calcium Decreases 35% from average could cause
    Convulsions from neurons
  24. Calcium decrease of 50% from average levels could cause
  25. What gland reacts to Low calcium Ion Levels?
    Parathyroid gland
  26. What gland reacts to high calcium Ion Levels?
    Thyroid gland
  27. Processes that maintain calcium Homeostasis:
    • 1. Calcium storage in matrix
    • 2. Rate of calcium absorbtion in the intestines
    • 3. Rate of calcium retention in the kidneys
  28. Characteristics that determine the type of fracture are?
    • External appearance
    • Location
    • Nature of crack or break
  29. a break across the long axis; perpendicular to length
    Transverse fracture
  30. Break that produces new bone arrangements is a ....
    Displaced Fracture
  31. fracture that occurs in vertibrae from excess stress
    Compression Fracture
  32. twisting streess that spread along length of bone is what type of fracture?
    Spiral Fracture
  33. a fracture that occurs where a bone is undergoing calcification
    Epiphyseal Fracture
  34. One side of shaft is broken along the length of shaft
    Greenstick Fracture
  35. Fracture that occurs at distal portion of radius; usually from falling on your hands
    Colles fracture
  36. Fracture that occurs at the ankle and affects both bones is called a ...
    Pott's Fracture
  37.  Connective tissue layer that Surrounds the entire muscle
  38. Connective tissue layer that divides muscles into compartments
  39. Bundle of muscle fibers in compartment
  40. Surrounds the muscle cells individually and include:
    1. Capillary network
    2. Myosatallite cells
    3. Nerve Fibers
  41. Collection of epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium; Connects muscle to bone is called a ....
  42. Sheet-like Tendon is called ....
  43. Order of Mysiums is ....
    Epi + Peri + Endo
  44. pre myoblast cells that wait to fuse for repair of tissue
    Myosatallite cells
  45. Plasma membrane of fiber and surrounds sarcoplasm
  46. Cytoplasm of muscle plasma
  47. Narrow tubes continuous with sarcolemma & wrap around myofibrils
  48. Responsible for muscle contraction; composed of filaments
  49. Thin filament is composed of what?
  50. Thick Filaments are composed of the protien...
  51. Elastic filaments are made up of the protien ...
  52. enlarged area of Sarcoplasmic reticulum from t-tubule connection
    Terminal Cisternae
  53. Tubular network around each Myofibril & acts like smooth reticulum
    Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
  54. The Terminal Cisternae and T-Tubule form a what?
  55. Repeated functional unit of myofilaments
  56. As long as a typical Thick Filament
    The A Band
  57. Middle connection of the thick Filaments
    The M Line
  58. Contains thick filaments, No Thin filaments; Originates from the M Line
  59. Area of thin filaments between thick filaments is called
    The Zone of overlap
  60. Contains Thin Filaments, but no thick
    The I-Band
  61. Marks boundaries between Sarcomeres
    The Z-Lines
  62. Connect ends of the A-Band to the Z-Line
  63. twisted strand composed of two rowes of G-Actin Is Called?
  64. in thin filaments, Molecules aranged in a row that make up the F-actin strand; Contain the site for Bonding with Thick Muscle Cells
  65. A Strand That connects the G-Actin in the F-Actin Strand
  66. Prevent the attachment of Thick to thin Muscle fibers in a resting muscle
    Tropomyosin & Troponin
  67. Strand that Covers the Active sites of The G-Actin
  68. Molecule that connects to the strand covering the active sites of G-Actin; Has Three Subunits: One connects to Tropomyosin, one connects to a G-Actin Molecule, and one serves as a receptor for Calcium
  69. Overview of muscle attachment:
    ...Neuron transfers action potential to synapse
    ...Synapse releases ACh
    ...ACh binds to receptor sites on muscles
    ...Sodium rushes into cell muscles
    ...Calcium is released in muscles To interact with F-Actin
    Atp and action potential must remain for muscle to contract
  70. A single contraction/relaxation sequence of a muscle fiber
    A twitch
  71. An increase in peak tension with everyh successful stimulas after an ending Twitch
  72. If a second successful stimulus arrives before the relaxation phase ends.
    Wave summation
  73. A muscle producing almost peak tension during rapid periods of muscle contraction/relaxation is called?
    Incomplete tetanus
  74. A higher stimulation frequency eliminates the relaxation phase.
    Complete tetanus
  75. The resting tension in a skeletal muscle
    Muscle Tone
  76.  Muscle contraction where the Tension rises and the skeletal muscle length changes
    Isotonic contraction
  77. Muscle contraction where muscle tension exceeds the load and the muscle shortens
  78. Muscle contraction where The peak tension is less that the load and the muscle stretches
    Eccentric Contraction
  79. Contraction where the muscle itself does not change length
    and tension does not exceed the load 
    Isometric Contraction
  80. Some energy is returned after a muscle contraction because of...
    Elastic Forces
  81. What works faster than Elastic Forces when trying to return muscle fibers back to original shape
    Opposing Muscle contractions
  82. Normally Provides 95% of the Atp demands of a resting cell.
    Aerobic Metabolism
  83. Mitochondria absorb oxygen+Adp+P+Pyruvate to in this metabolic process
    Aerobic Metabolism
  84. Anaerobic process thta breaks down glucose to produce energy
  85. What molecules are formed during Glycolysis?
    • 2 molecules of Atp
    • 2 molecules of Pyruvate
  86. An enlargement of the sustained muscle
  87. A loss of muscle tone, size, and power in a muscle
  88. Characteristrics of cardiac Muscle cell structure:
    • Relatively small, Single central neucleus,
    • T-Tubules connect at z-line
    • Dependant on Aerobic metabolism
  89. At intercalated discs, the cells are connected by
    ___ and ___?
    Gap junctions & Desmosomes
  90. Because Cardiac muscle cells are ____,___,and ___ connected, the entire tissue resembles an enormous Muscle cell.
    Chemically, electrically, and Mechanically
  91. Cardiac muscle tissue contracts without ____ ____ which is called _____?
    Neural stimulation, Automaticity
  92. Cells that determine the timing of contractions are...
    Pacemaker cells
  93. Sarcolemma Structure in Cardiac muscle cells allow the heart to always contract & relax to pump blood.
    True or False?
  94. Forms sheets, bundles, or sheaths around other tissues in almost every organ
    Smooth muscle tissue
  95. Tissue that regulates movement of matireals across passageways
    Smooth Muscle tissue
  96. Smooth muscle tissues affect which organ systems?
    Integumentary, respiratory, digestive, cardiovascular, reproductive.
  97. Lacks myofibrils & Sarcomeres; Nonstriated
    Thin filaments attach to dense bodies
    Smooth muscle tissue
  98. Smooth muscle cells are bound at _____ _____ which helps transmit action potential from cell to cell throughout muscle tissue.
    Dense Bodies
  99. Smooth muscle contraction involves what enzyme to enable myosin heads to attach to actin?
    Myosin light chain Kinase
  100. Smooth muscle adapts to its new length and retains the ability to retract on demand. This characteristic is called...
    Length-Tension Relationship
  101. Characteristics of Smooth Muscle separate from other muscle cells:
    • Excitation-Contraction Coupling
    • Length tension Relationship
    • Control of contractions
  102. The Basic functional units of the nervous system are individual cells called ...
  103. The Central Nervous system consists of the .....
    Brain and Spinal Cord
  104. What system includes all neural tissue outside of the Central Nervous System?
    The Peripheral Nervous System
  105. Nerves attached to the brain are called ...
    Cranial nerves
  106. Nerves attached to the spinal cord are called...
    Spinal nerves
  107. The Two Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System are:
    Afferent & Efferent
  108. Brings sensory information to the Central Nervous System from receptors in Peripheral Tissues.
    Afferent Division Of the PNS
  109. Sensory structures that either detect changes or respond to specific stimuli are called....
  110. Carries Motor commands From the Central Nervous System to muscles, glands, and adipose tissue.
    Efferent Division of the Peripheral Nervous System
  111. Target organs which respond by doing something are called what?
  112. What are the 2 components of the Efferent Division?
    Somatic Nervous System & Autonomic Nervous System
  113. Controls skeletal muscle contractions voluntarily and subconsiously
    Somatic Nervous System
  114. Automatic regulation at the subconscious level in smooth and cardiac muscle.
    Autonomic Nervous System
  115. Sypathetic division increases heart rate
    Parasypathetic division decreases heart rate
    Two Divisions of Autonomic Nervous System:
    True or False?
  116. Have more than two processes, but axons cannot be distinguished from dendrites
    Anaxonic Neurons
  117. Have two processess separated by the cell body
    BiPolar Neuron
  118. Neuron that has  a single elongated process, with the cell body positioned off to the side
    Unipolar Neuron.
  119. Neuron that has more than two processess; there is a single axon, & multiple Dendrites
    Multipolar Neuron
  120. Form the Afferent division of the Peripheral Nervous System. What type of Neurons?
    Sensory Neurons
  121. Neurons that deliver information from receptors to the Central Nervous System are called...
    Sensory Neurons
  122. Three Types of Sensory Neurons:
    • Interoceptors
    • Exteroceptors
    • Proprioceptors
  123. Sensory Neurons that monitor respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, and reproductive systems and provides sensations of distension, deep pressure, and pain
  124. Sensory Neurons that Provide information about the External Environment from senses; ie. sight, smell, equilibrium and so forth
  125. Sensory Neurons that Monitor the position and movement of skeletal muscles and joints
  126. Nurons that form the Efferent Division of the Peripheral Nervous System are called...
    Motor Neurons
  127. Neurons that carry instructions from the CNS to the Peripheral Effectors
    Motor Neurons
  128. They are abundant and diverse, and they account for roughly half of the volume of the nervous system. What are they?
  129. The 6 Types of Neuroglia are:
    1. Types in CNS
    2. Types in PNS
    • 1. Epyndymal cells, Astrocytes, Oligendrocytes, Microglia,
    • 2. Satellite Cells, Schwann Cells
  130. Neuroglia that assists in producing, circulating, and monitoring cerebral spinal fluid.
    Epyndymal Cell
  131. Neuroglia that absorbs and recycles neurotransmitters;
    also forms scar tissue after injury
  132. Neuroglia that Myelinates (wraps and insulates) CNS Axons.
  133. Neuroglia that Removes cell debris, wastes and pathogens
    by phagocytosis.
  134. Nuroglia that regulates Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, nutrient & neurotransmitter levels around neurons in ganglia.
    Satellite Cells
  135. Neuroglia that Myelinate (Wrap And Insulate) Axons in the PNS.
    Schwann Cells
  136. The electrical potential of the cells interior relative to its surroundings.
    Transmembrane Potential
  137. The transmembrane potential of a resting cell is called ...
    Resting potential
  138. When a stimulus produces a temporary ,localized change in the resting  potential.
    Graded Potential
  139. An electrical impulse that does not diminish as it moves away from its source.
    Action Potential
  140. Produces graded potentials in the plasma membrande of the post synaptic cell.
    Synaptic Activity
  141. what is The response of the post synaptic cell called?
    Also, the Integration of stimuli at the level of the individuals cell is the simplest form.  
    Information Processing
  142. 3 Concepts regarding transmembrane potential:
    1. The ___ and ___ differ greatly in ion composition.
    2. Cells have ______  ________ Membranes.
    3. Membrane permeability varies between ____.
    • 1. ECF & Cytosol
    • 2. Selectively Permeable
    • 3. Ions
  143. Affected by the concentrations of identical ions
    Potassium, Sodium,
    Chemical Gradient
  144. Affected by the concentration differences of charged molecules opposing the plasma membrane.
    Electrical gradient
  145. The sum of the chemical and electrical forces acting against a particular ion
    Electrochemical Gradient
  146. Gated Channels that Open or close when they bind to specific chemicals.
    Chemically gated channels
  147. Gated Channels that respond to changes in the transmembrane potential.
    Voltage gated channels
  148. Gated channels that open in response to distortion (Applied Pressure) to the membrane
    Mechanically Gated Channel
  149. Any shift from the resting potential to a more positive potential and excludes 0mv is called ....
  150. The process of restoring the normal resting potential after depolarization
  151. An increase in the negativity of the resting potential; occurs from the loss of too many positive ions inside of the cell.
  152. The Transmembrane potential at which an action potential begins is called the ....
  153. 4  Steps to Generating Action Potential:
    1 ____ to _____?
    2 Activation of ____ _____ and rapid ________.
    3 Inactivation of ____ ____ and activation of _____ ____.
    4 Closing of ____  ______.
    • 1. Depolarization to Threshold
    • 2. Sodium Channels & Depolarization
    • 3. Sodium Channels & Potassium Channels
    • 4. Potassium Channels
  154. 4 Graded Potential characteristics:
    • No threshold, No refractory period
    • Depolarization depends on intensity of stimulus
    • Passive spread from site of stimulation
    • Occur in most plasma membranes
  155. 4 Action Potential Characteistics:
    • Threshold must be met for Action Potential to begin
    • Stimuli that exceed threshold produce identical Act Pot.
    • Spreads along entire membrane surface without decrease
    • Occur in excitable cells; Neurons & Muscle
  156. Period where the membrane cannot respond to
    further stimulation is called...
    Absolute Period
  157. Period where the membrane responds only to a
    larger than normal stimulus.
    Relative refractory Period
Card Set
Lee's A&P Test 3
Information of matireal for test 3 (Integumentary, Skeletal System, Muscle system, Nervous system)