hairs are nonliving structures produced in organs called...
Surrounds the base of each hair follicle; as a result, you can feel the movement of every shaft of hair
Root Hair Plexus
Hair that develops within embryo development
Peach Fuzz; Thin hairs
Heavy more deeply pigmented hairs; sometimes curly
Secrete their productions into hair follicles
Apocrine sweat glands
Coiled tubular glands that discharge their secretions directly onto the skin
Merocrine sweat glands
Functions of Merocrine sweat gland activity:
Cooling of the skin
Excretion of water and electrolytes
Provide protection from environmental hazards
The mammary glands are anatomically related to what glands?
Apocrine sweat glands
Nail production occurs where?
At the Nail Root
Repair of injury to the integument Includes:
1. Inflammatory phase
2. Migratory Phase
3. Proliferation Phase
4. Maturation Phase
5 Primary functions of the skeletal system:
Support, Storage of minerals & lipids,
Blood cell production, Protection, Leverage
Mature bone cells that make up most of the cell population; maintains bone matrix; repairs damaged bone
Immature bone cell that secretes organic components of matrix
Multinucleate cell that secretes acids and enzymes to dissolve bone matrix
Stem cell whose devisions produce osteoblasts
Ossification of hyaline cartilage is called
Ossification of a fibrous connective tissue forms What
Minerals are recycled within the bone matrix in a process called...
Synthesized in kidneys; essential for calcium and phosphate ion absorbtion
Reguired for key enzymatic reaction in collagen synthesis, and Osteoblast differentiation
Calcium level increases 30% from average
Muscle cells become unresponsive
Calcium Decreases 35% from average could cause
Convulsions from neurons
Calcium decrease of 50% from average levels could cause
What gland reacts to Low calcium Ion Levels?
What gland reacts to high calcium Ion Levels?
Processes that maintain calcium Homeostasis:
1. Calcium storage in matrix
2. Rate of calcium absorbtion in the intestines
3. Rate of calcium retention in the kidneys
Characteristics that determine the type of fracture are?
Nature of crack or break
a break across the long axis; perpendicular to length
Break that produces new bone arrangements is a ....
fracture that occurs in vertibrae from excess stress
twisting streess that spread along length of bone is what type of fracture?
a fracture that occurs where a bone is undergoing calcification
One side of shaft is broken along the length of shaft
Fracture that occurs at distal portion of radius; usually from falling on your hands
Fracture that occurs at the ankle and affects both bones is called a ...
Connective tissue layer that Surrounds the entire muscle
Connective tissue layer that divides muscles into compartments
Bundle of muscle fibers in compartment
Surrounds the muscle cells individually and include:
1. Capillary network
2. Myosatallite cells
3. Nerve Fibers
Collection of epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium; Connects muscle to bone is called a ....
Sheet-like Tendon is called ....
Order of Mysiums is ....
Epi + Peri + Endo
pre myoblast cells that wait to fuse for repair of tissue
Plasma membrane of fiber and surrounds sarcoplasm
Cytoplasm of muscle plasma
Narrow tubes continuous with sarcolemma & wrap around myofibrils
Responsible for muscle contraction; composed of filaments
Thin filament is composed of what?
Thick Filaments are composed of the protien...
Elastic filaments are made up of the protien ...
enlarged area of Sarcoplasmic reticulum from t-tubule connection
Tubular network around each Myofibril & acts like smooth reticulum
The Terminal Cisternae and T-Tubule form a what?
Repeated functional unit of myofilaments
As long as a typical Thick Filament
The A Band
Middle connection of the thick Filaments
The M Line
Contains thick filaments, No Thin filaments; Originates from the M Line
Area of thin filaments between thick filaments is called
The Zone of overlap
Contains Thin Filaments, but no thick
Marks boundaries between Sarcomeres
Connect ends of the A-Band to the Z-Line
twisted strand composed of two rowes of G-Actin Is Called?
in thin filaments, Molecules aranged in a row that make up the F-actin strand; Contain the site for Bonding with Thick Muscle Cells
A Strand That connects the G-Actin in the F-Actin Strand
Prevent the attachment of Thick to thin Muscle fibers in a resting muscle
Tropomyosin & Troponin
Strand that Covers the Active sites of The G-Actin
Molecule that connects to the strand covering the active sites of G-Actin; Has Three Subunits: One connects to Tropomyosin, one connects to a G-Actin Molecule, and one serves as a receptor for Calcium
Overview of muscle attachment:
...Neuron transfers action potential to synapse
...Synapse releases ACh
...ACh binds to receptor sites on muscles
...Sodium rushes into cell muscles
...Calcium is released in muscles To interact with F-Actin
Atp and action potential must remain for muscle to contract
A single contraction/relaxation sequence of a muscle fiber
An increase in peak tension with everyh successful stimulas after an ending Twitch
If a second successful stimulus arrives before the relaxation phase ends.
A muscle producing almost peak tension during rapid periods of muscle contraction/relaxation is called?
A higher stimulation frequency eliminates the relaxation phase.
The resting tension in a skeletal muscle
Muscle contraction where the Tension rises and the skeletal muscle length changes
Muscle contraction where muscle tension exceeds the load and the muscle shortens
Muscle contraction where The peak tension is less that the load and the muscle stretches
Contraction where the muscle itself does not change length
and tension does not exceed the load
Some energy is returned after a muscle contraction because of...
What works faster than Elastic Forces when trying to return muscle fibers back to original shape
Opposing Muscle contractions
Normally Provides 95% of the Atp demands of a resting cell.
Mitochondria absorb oxygen+Adp+P+Pyruvate to in this metabolic process
Anaerobic process thta breaks down glucose to produce energy
What molecules are formed during Glycolysis?
2 molecules of Atp
2 molecules of Pyruvate
An enlargement of the sustained muscle
A loss of muscle tone, size, and power in a muscle
Characteristrics of cardiac Muscle cell structure:
Relatively small, Single central neucleus,
T-Tubules connect at z-line
Dependant on Aerobic metabolism
At intercalated discs, the cells are connected by
___ and ___?
Gap junctions & Desmosomes
Because Cardiac muscle cells are ____,___,and ___ connected, the entire tissue resembles an enormous Muscle cell.
Chemically, electrically, and Mechanically
Cardiac muscle tissue contracts without ____ ____ which is called _____?
Neural stimulation, Automaticity
Cells that determine the timing of contractions are...
Sarcolemma Structure in Cardiac muscle cells allow the heart to always contract & relax to pump blood.
True or False?
Forms sheets, bundles, or sheaths around other tissues in almost every organ
Smooth muscle tissue
Tissue that regulates movement of matireals across passageways