1. Meninges
    membranes located between bone oand soft tissue of nervous system, protect the brain and spinal cord
  2. Three layers of meninges
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater
  3. dura mater
    • outermost layer,
    • composed of tough, white, dense connective tissue
    • contains many blood vessels and nerves
  4. epidural space
    • lies between the dural sheath and bony walls
    • contains blood vessels, loose connecive tissue and adipose tissue that pad the spinal cord
  5. arachnoid mater
    • thin, weblike membrane
    • lacks blood vessels
    • located between the dura and pia maters
  6. subarachnoid space
    • between the arachnoid and pia maters
    • contains cerebrospinal fluid
  7. pia mater
    • thin and contains many nerves and blood vessels
    • nourish the underlying cells of brain and spinal cord
  8. ventricles
    • located in the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem
    • continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord
    • filled with csf
  9. lateral ventricles
    • two
    • first in left cerebral hemisphere
    • second in right cerebral hemisphere
    • extend anteriorly and posteriorly into the cerebral hemispheres
  10. third ventricle
    located in the midline of the brain beneath the corpus callosum
  11. interventricular foramina
    • opening at anterior end of third ventricle
    • allows communication with lateral ventricles
  12. fourth ventricle
    • located in the brainstem
    • anterior to the cerebellum
    • continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord
    • has openings in its roof that lead into the subarachnoid space of the meninges.
  13. cerebral aqueduct
    connects third and fouth ventricle
  14. choroid plexuses
    • reddish cauliflowerlike masses of specialized capillaries from the pia mater
    • secrete csf
  15. Route of csf
    • csf formed in lateral ventricles
    • to intraventricular foramen
    • to 3rd ventricle
    • to cerbral aquaduct
    • to 4th ventricle
    • to central canal
    • to spinal cord and subarachnoid space
    • then to top
  16. arachnoid granulations
    • tiny fingerlike structures projecting fom subarachnoid space
    • reabsorb csf
  17. spinal cord
    • slender column of nervous tissue continuous with brain and brainsem
    • extends downward through vertebral canal
    • begins at foramen magnum and terminates at the first and second lumbar vertebrae
  18. function of spinal cord
    • pathway for nerve impulses to and from brain and brainstem
    • center for spinal reflexes
  19. filum terminale
    • thin cord of connective tissue descending to the upper surface of coccyx
    • originates from spinal nerves at lumbar and sacral level
  20. cauda equina
    • looks like horses tail
    • formed from filum terminale and the spinal nerves below the conus medullaris
  21. patellar reflex
    • also called knee jerk reflex
    • uses two nerons - sensory and motor
  22. parts of reflex arc
    • receptor
    • sensory neuron
    • interneuron
    • motor neuron
    • effector
  23. receptor
    DESCRIPTION - receptor end of a dendrite or a specialized receptor cell in a sensory organ

    FUNCTION - sensitive to a specific type of internal or exernal change
  24. Sensory neuron
    DESCRIPTION - dendrite, cell body, and axon of a sensory neuron

    FUNCTION - transmits nerve impulse from the receptor into the brain or spinal cord
  25. interneuron
    DESCRIPTION - dendrite, cell body, and axon of a neuron within the brain or spinal cord

    FUNCTION - serves as processing center; conducts nerve impulse from the sensory neuron to a motor neuron
  26. motor neuron
    DESCRIPTION - dendrite, cell body, and axon of a motor neuron

    FUNCTION - transmits nerve impulse from the brain or spinal cord out to an effector
  27. effector
    DESCRIPTION - a muscle or gland

    FUNCTION - responds to stimulation by the motor neuron and produces the reflex or behavioral action
  28. ascending tracts
    tracts that conduct sensory impulses to the brain
  29. descending tracts
    conduct motor impulses from the brain to motor neurons reaching muscles and glands
  30. Ascending Tracts
    • Fasciculu gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus
    • spinothalamic tracts (lateral and anterior)
    • spinocerebellar tracts (posterior and anterior
  31. descending tracts
    • corticospinal tracts (lateral and anterior)
    • reticulospinal tracts (lateral, anterior, and medial)
    • rubrospinal tracts
  32. fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus
    LOCATION - posterior funiculi

    FUNCTION - conduct sensory impulses associated with sense of touch, pressure, and body movement from skin, muscles, tendons and joints to the brain
  33. lateral spinothalamic tracts
    LOCATION - lateral funiculi

    FUNCTION - conduct sensory impulses associated with senses of pain and temperature
  34. anterior spinothalamic tracts
    LOCATION - anterior fauniculi

    FUNCTION - conduct sensory implses associated with senses of touch and pressure
  35. apinocerebellar tracts (posterior and anterior)
    LOCATION - lateral funiculi

    FUNCTION - conduct sensory impulses required for the coordination of muscle movements from muscles of the lower limbs and trunk to the cerbellum
  36. corticospinal tracts (lateral and anterior)
    LOCATION - laeral and anterior funiculi

    FUNCTION- conduct motor impulses associated with voluntary movements from the brain to skeletal muscles
  37. reticulospinal tracts (lateral, anterior and medial)
    LOCATION - lateral and anterior funiculi

    FUNCTION - conduct motor impulses associated with the maintenance of muscle tone and the activity of sweat glands from the brain
  38. rubrospinal tracts
    LOCATION - lateral funiculi

    FUNCTION - conduct motor impulses associated with muscular coordination and the maintenance of posture from the brain
  39. brain development
    forebrain becomes cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon

    midbrain becomes midbrain

    hindbrain becoms pons, cerebellum and medulla oblongata

    neural tube becomes spinal cord
  40. cerebrum
    • largest part of the mature brain
    • consists of two cerebral hemispheres
  41. corpus callosum
    • deep bridge of nerve fibers
    • connects the cerebral hemispheres
  42. gyri
    ridges or convolutions separated by grooves
  43. sulcus
    a shallow to somewhat deep groove
  44. fissure
    a very deep groove
  45. longitudinal fissure
    separates the right and left cerebral hemispheres
  46. transverse fissure
    separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum
  47. sulci
    divide each hemisphere into lobes
  48. frontal lobe
    • forms the anterior portion of each cerbral hemisphere.
    • bordered posteriorly by a central sulcus
    • bordered inferiorly by a lateral sulcus
    • FUNCTION - higher intellectual processes for concentrating, planning, complex problem solving, and judging consequences of behavior
    • control movements of voluntary skeletal muscles
  49. parietal lobe
    • posterior to the frontal lobe
    • separated from frontal by central sulcus
    • FUNCTION: provide sensations of temperature, touch, pressure and pain
    • understanding speech and using words to express thoughts and feelings
  50. temporal lobe
    • inferior to the frontal and parietal lobes and separated from them by the lateral sulcus
    • FUNCTION: hearing, remember visual scenes, music, and other complex sensory patterns
  51. occipital lobe
    • forms the posterior portion of each cerbral hemisphere
    • separtated from the cerebellum by the tentorium cerbelli
    • FUNCTION: vision
  52. tentorium cerebelli
    shelflike extension of dura mater
  53. Insula
    • lobe deep within the lateral sulcus and is covered by parts of the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes
    • separated from other lobes by circular sulcus
  54. cerebral cortex
    • thin layer of gray matter
    • the outermost portion of the cereburm
    • contains nearly 75% of all the neuron cell bodies in the nervous system
  55. basal
  56. nuclei
    • masses of gray matter deep in cerebral hemispheres
    • caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus
    • develop from anterior portion of the forebrain
    • produce dopamine
  57. diencephalon
    • develops from posterior forebrain
    • located between the cerebral hemispheres and superior to the brainstem
    • surrounds the third ventricle
    • largely composed of gray matter
  58. thalamus
    • located in diancephalon
    • bulges into third ventricle
    • receives all sensory impulses except for sense of smell and sends them to appropriate part of brain
    • relay center
  59. hypothalamus
    • located in diencephalon
    • many nuclei
    • inferior to thalamic nuclei
    • forms lower walls and floor of the third ventricle
    • regulates: heart rate, blood pressure, body temp, water and electrolyte balance, control of hunger and body weight, control of movements and glandular secretions of the stomach and intestines, production of neurosecretory substances to release hormones to regulate growth, control various glands and influence reproductive physiology, sleep and wakefulness
  60. optic tracts and optic chiasma
    • located in diencephalon
    • formed by optic nerve fibers crossing over
  61. infundibulum
    • located in diencephalon
    • conical process behind optic chiasma which the pituitary gland is attached
  62. posterior pituitary gland
    • hangs from the floor of the hypothalamus
    • located in diencephalon
  63. mammillary bodies
    • located in diencephalon
    • two rounded structures behind the infundibulum
  64. pineal gland
    • located in diencephalon
    • forms as a con-shaped evangination from the roof of the diencephalon
  65. limbic system
    controls emotional experience and expression, can modify the way a person acts, producing feelings such as fear, anger, pleasure and sorrow. Reacts to potentially life threatening upsets in a persons physical or psychological condition.
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chapter 11