Sociology Exam #3

  1. Myths of Race and Ethnicity
    • 1.) any race is superior to others
    • 2.) "pure" races exist
    • 3.) race is not ethnicity
  2. Minority and Dominant Groups
    Minority: members of a group that experience mistreatment based upon memebership in that group

    • Dominant: constrains the behaviors of others, limits opportunities
    • Subordinate: one who is constrained in their behaviors, who's opportunities are limited by another
  3. Prejudice and Discrimination
    Prejudice: pre-judging members of a group; THOUGHTS ONLY

    Discrimination: action based upon prejudice
  4. Racism
    the systematic, institutionalized mistreatment of members of a group for real or percieved heritage
  5. Assimilation
    - the process by which a minority group is absorbed into the mainstream culture

    - Forced: dominant group refuses to allow the minority to practice religion, customs or speak their language

    - Permissible: allows minority to adopt the dominant group's patterns in its own way and speed
  6. Pluralism (Multiculturalism)
    permits or even encourages racial-ethnic variation
  7. Race
    a biological component, but a social construct that identifies members of a group
  8. Ethnicity
    heritage, cultural connection with fore-parents
  9. Scapegoat Hypothesis
    History: ritual to uncurse town; sacrafice goat

    Very similar history for ALL minority groups in U.S.; regardless of the method employed as to their arrival

    Otebenga (pygmy in zoo) reinforces ideas
  10. Immigration
    - 2 waves of European Immigration

    • - 1840s-1880: north and western european
    • - 1880s-1920: eastern and southern european

    - Cyclic Immigration from around the world
  11. Affirmative Action
    to provide opportunities to people historically excluded in American life
  12. Sex vs. Gender
    • - Sex is biological; the continuum from Male-Female
    • ~ chromosomal differences, multiple genetalia, dominant genetalia

    - Gender is the social expression of one's sex, sexuality, social position and class within their ethnicity within their culture
  13. Inequalities Along Sex Lines
    - Wage gap

    - Mentors/Role Models in education and employment

    - Patriarchy
  14. Patriarchy
    a society for men, by men, where male agency is valued
  15. Nature vs. Nurture and Sexuality
    - Nature: born that way

    - Nurture: raised that way

    - The influence of culture, including religion

    - Think objectively vs. based biases we all have, what makes us who we are
  16. Violence Against Women/Domestic Violence/IPV
    - Power differentials make this behavior significantly different than a fight between equals

    - History with criminal justice system

    - Stigma both socially and historically (think
  17. Politics
    the exercise of power and attempts to maintain or to change power relations
  18. Authority
    - YOU can't distribute the scarce resources, etc. only people in authority can

    • - Illigitamate: a mugging; (coercion) power people don't accept as just
    • - Legitamate: use of taxes to pay for roads (authority)

    • - Traditional: tradition
    • - Rational-Legal: rationale
    • - Charismatic: personal quality
  19. Types of Government
    - Monarchy: (divine rights of kings) City-States, single ruler over all

    - Democracy: Direct (each vote); Representative (elect voters for us)

    - Citizenship: belonging to a political group a.k.a. nation; obtain the rights and privledges due members of that particular group
  20. Economy
    a system that provides for the trade, production and distribution of goods and services
  21. Types of Economies
    • - Subsistance: agrarian mostly
    • - Industrial: produce things
    • - Post-Industrial: service, globalization, excess goods vs. markets; someone else is manufacturing for us
  22. Capitalism
    - Pure: lassez-faire

    - US Form: welfare/state
  23. Socialism
    - public ownership, central planning and distribution without profit

    - Democratic Socialism: mix of the two above
  24. Public Good
    an act that benefits the entire public; ALL people, at least in a community, state, region, etc.
  25. Evolution of US Education System
    • - Historical Shifts from Specific Training
    • ~ Apprenticeships
    • ~ Rise of Industrialzation (less need for trained workers

    - 1800s idea of public school (reading, writing, arithmatic)

    - "some" education becomes valued

    - Junior and Senior colleges
  26. What Works
    • - Manifest Fuctions: intended and clear (standardized education, all students in centralized place)
    • Latent: may be unintended and unexpected (desegregation, exposure to more than lesson plans)

    - Social Placement: transition to colleges/trades

    - Gatekeeping: who gets to go to the better school

    - Social Integration
  27. What Doesn't Work
    - Hidden Curriculum: obedience to authority and conformity

    - Dropout Rates and Failures

    - Gangs, Guns, Drugs, Secularism
  28. Inequalities in Education
    - Grade Inflation

    - Functional Illiteracy

    - Peer groups/peer pressure

    - Standardized Testing: discrimination by IQ

    - Teacher/School Accountability
  29. Interaction of Race, Class, Gender, Ethnicity
    - Higher grades results in more money and being white

    - Lower grades results in less money and minorities
  30. Components of Religion
    - Beliefs

    - Practices

    - A Moral Community
  31. Mutual Exclusion
    Religions are mutually exclusive because they all believe they submit to one God, although they have different names
  32. Salvation
    Central precept is the idea of salvation: God or other Higher Power saves humanity from spiritual death
  33. Faith (Belief)
    - The difference between sacred (forbidden, set apart from the profane)

    - Simple to complex cosmotologies
  34. Moral Community (Church)
    a group of people who are united by their moral practices
  35. Marx's View
    - Religion is the opiate for the masses

    - Collective effervescence (percieved energy formed by a gathering of people)
  36. Weber's View
    • - The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (brief)
    • ~ moderation
    • ~ modesty
    • ~ capital reinvestment/tithing
  37. 4 Main Types of Religious Groups
    - Cults

    - Church

    - Sect

    - Eccelisa
  38. How 4 Groups Differ
    - All based upon social acceptance

    - Cults: new or different religion who's teachings and practices put it at odd's with the dominant culture and religion (Heavens Gate)

    - Church: Catholics and Protestants (more bureaucratized)

    - Sect: larger than a cult, but members still feel tension (Snake Handlers)

    - Eccelisa: state sponsored religion (Lutheranism, Swedes)
Card Set
Sociology Exam #3
Final Sociology Test for Spring '10