1. Alexander the Great
    • B. 356 D. 323 BC
    • Ruer of Greece 4th centry BC
    • conquered most of ancient world Ionian Sea to Himalayas
    • tutored by Aristotle until 16
    • Measured against which military leaders compared selves
  2. Attila the Hun
    • Ruler of Huns 434-453
    • Empire Ural River to Rhine River
    • Danube to Baltic Sea
    • Forces overran many parts of central and eastern Europe
    • Know for cruelty and destruction
  3. Augustus Caesar
    • B. 63 BC D. 14 AD
    • First Emperor of Roam (27 BC to 14 AD)
    • Adoped son of Julius Caesar
    • Pax Romana
    • During reign, considered golden age for literature
    • -Jesus
    • -August
  4. Aztecs
    • Native american people
    • Ruled Mexico and surrounding area 12th - 15th
    • Spanish conquered 16 cent
  5. Babylon
    • City in ancient Mesopotamia
    • founded 1894 BC
    • hanging gardens
  6. Bacon, Francis
    • English politician, scientist, and author of the late 16 early 17 centuries
    • established the baconian method (aka) scientific method
    • died pneumonia studying frozen meat
  7. Black Death
    • pandemic in europe 1348 - 1350
    • form of bubonic plague of modern times
    • transported by black rats on trade ships from China
    • killed 75-100 million people
  8. Boylen, Anne
    • B. 1501 (?) D. 1536
    • Queen of Englad 1533 - 1536
    • Second wife Henry VIII
    • Mother Queen Elizabeth
    • Convicted of adultry and beheaded
  9. Bread and Circuses
     the creation of public approval through diversion, distraction, and/or the mere satisfaction of the immediate, shallow requirements of a populace

    erosion or ignorance of civic duty

    modern - no longer value civic virtues
  10. Bronze Age
    • period from 4000 - onset of Iron Age approx (1200-300BC)
    • people learned to make bronze tools
  11. Byzantine Empire
    • Empire centered on Constantinople
    • eastern portion of Roman Empire (parts of europe and asia)
    • Became important at decline of Western empire
    • conquered by Turkish in 15th century
    • Absolute ruler
    • supported by Christian Church - Eastern Orthodox
  12. Caesar
    • Family name of Julius Caesar and next 11 rulers
    • Germany and Russian adapted name to Kaiser and Czar
  13. Caligula
    • aka Gaius
    • Emporer 37 - 41 AD
    • Name means little soldier's boot
    • Cruel and insane ruler
    • humiliate the senators he appointed horse to senate
    • first Roman emperor to be assassinated
  14. Carthage
    • Anciet city in N. Africa established by traders from Phoenicia
    • commercial and political rival of Rome (2-3 cent)
    • Hannibal (general) attempted to conquer Rome -Spain
    • defeated in Carthage at end of Punic Wars
    • Dido (lover of Aeneas) queen of Carthage
  15. Cato
    • Politician of ancient Rome
    • insisted Carthage was Rome's permanent enemy
    • "Carthage must be destroyed"
  16. Charlemagne
    • 1st emperor of Holy Roman Empire
    • Name means "Charles the Great"
    • King of France 768 - 814
    • called Father of Europe - untied most of Western Europe since Roman Empire
  17. chivalry
    • methods of training and standards of heahvior for knights
    • emphasized bravery, military skill, generosity in victory, piety and courtesy to women.
  18. Cleopatra
    • Queen of Egypt 51 - 30 BC
    • member of Ptolemaic dynasty /ruled Egypt after Alexander
    • Ptolemaic dynasty only spoke Greek/ refused to speak Egyptian - Rosetta Stone
    • Cleopatra learned Egyption - represented self as reincarnation of Egyptian goddess Isis
    • Ruled with father (II) then with brothers (III & IV)
    • Married Marc Antony
    • Had three children
    • Committed Suicide by asp bite
  19. Columbus, Christopher
    • Italian explorer discovered America 1492
    • Salid from Spain under patronage of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
    • Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria
    • Made 4 voyages to New World visiting:
    • Bahamas, Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Trinidad, Venezuela, and Cent. America coast
  20. Constantinople
    • City founded by emperor Constantine as capitol
    • Constantine ruled over both parts of empire from Constantinople
    • Later capital of Byzatine Empire
    • Conquered by Turks in 15th century
    • Istandbul
  21. Copernicus, Nicolaus
    • Polish scholar of 16th century
    • argued that earth moves around the sun
  22. Crusades
    • series of wars 11-13th centuries
    • European kings and warriors set out to gain controol of Holy Land
    • at time, areas held by Moslems
    • Crusaders conquered Jerusalem in 1099
    • failed to secure and were driven out by late 13th century
    • exposed Europeans to Asian goods, technology and customs
  23. Dark Ages
    • term sometimes applied to early Middle ages
    • first few centruries after the Fall of Rome
    • suggest prevailing ignorance and barbarism
  24. Fall of Rome
    • Collape of the Roman Empire 476
    • Romulus Augustus (last roman emperor) deposed by Odoacer
    • Rome plundered by Vandals
  25. Feudalism
    • system of obligations that bound loards and their subjects in Europe during much of the middle ages
    • King owned land
    • gave it to leading nobles in return for their loyalty and military service
    • Nobles held land that peasants and serfs worked for food and paid with part of produce
    • born into permanent position in society
  26. Genghis Khan
    • Mongolian emperor and general of late 12 early 13th century
    • united many nomadic tribes
    • known for military leadership and great cruelty
    • conquered vast portions of N. China and sw asia
  27. guilds
    • organizations of artisans
    • middle ages
    • sought regulation of price and quality
    • weaving/ iron work
    • gave way to trade unions in 18th centry
    • members were self employed unlike those in trade unions
  28. Gutenberg, Johann
    • German printer 15th century
    • invented printing press
    • invented movable type - reuseable after page printed
    • Gutenberg Bible first book printed from moveable type
  29. Hammurabi
    • 6th king of Babylon
    • B. 1792 D. 1750
    • King of ancient Mesopotamia
    • putting laws into a formal code
    • all had to abide by the code
  30. Hannibal
    • General from Carthage
    • during second Punic wars - to Army with elephants from Spain over Alps to conquer Rome
    • troop movemet considered one of the greatest in history
    • Many great victories, never took Rome
  31. Hastings, Battle of
    • Battle in SE England in 1066
    • Invaders from the French province of Normandy, led by William the COnqueror, defeated English forces under King Harold
    • William declared himself king, thus bringing about the Norman Conquest of England
  32. Henry VIII
    • King of England 1509 - 1547
    • Born 1491
    • Established self as head of Christian Church in England after Pope refused to allow marriage with Catherine of Aragon to be dissolved.
    • Since then (except for rule by Mary I) Englad has been protestant nation
    • Know for being overweight, marrying 6 times
    • Catherine of Aragon - divorced - Mary
    • Anne - beheaded - Elizabeth
    • Jane Seymour - died after birth of son
    • Anne of Cleves - divorced
    • Catherine Howard - beheaded
    • Catherine Parr - survived him
    • Had close friend Thomas More executed because he would not support Henry's declaration othat he was head of the church in England
    • Fathered Edward VI, Elizabeth I and Mary I
  33. Hundred Years' War
    • War between France and England that lasted from 1337 - 1453 for control of the French throne
    • Joan of Arc helped rally the French who finally drove out the English
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