What is the hallmark of glomerular disease?
protienuria (with an INACTIVE sediment)
what are the 2 types of glomerular dz in domestic animals?
- glomerular amyloidosis
what is the most common reason to see proteinuria?
lower urinary tract (stones, infection, etc) --> see protein along with active sediment
why are proteins not seen in urine in health?
large molecules, negatively charged so repelled by negative basement membrane; tubular reabsorption/catabolism
what are classical signs of nephrotic syndrome? 4
what produces mesangial matrix and is phagocytic/clears residues, therefore may play major role in mediating injury?
what is role of microfilaments found on mesangial cells?
respond to vasoactive substances like angiotensin II --> alter surface area of glomerulus available for filtration
What type of injury underlies most cases of glomerulonephritis?
immunologic injury (Ab-Ag complexes from pyometra, HW, SLE, adenovirus 1, chronic infections, neoplasia, IDIOPATHIC mostly)
What are some causes of immune complex formation in glomerulus of cats? 4
- mostly idiopathic
- Mycoplasma gatae
- neoplasia (lymphoma)
What breeds get membranoproliferative GN?
- wheaton terrier
- Bermese Mtn dog
- Brittany spaniel
What breeds get basement membrane disorders?
- English Cocker Spaniel
- Bull terrier
What group of disease is characterized by extracellular deposition of protein subunits that form beta pleated sheets? what are characteristics when stained with H/E or congo red?
amyloidosis (homogenous eosinophilic with H/E stain; green birefringence w/congo red)
Is most amyloidosis systemic or localized?
most commonly systemic --> familial or idiopathic (or assoc.w/neoplasia or chronic disease)
What breeds are associated with familial reactive systemic amyloidosis?
- shar pei, beagle, english foxhound
- abyssinian, siamese, oriental short hair
What is usually the reason amyloidosis is discovered in a patient?
- deposits are widespread but clinical signs relate to kidney involvement/renal failure
- **exception when severe liver involvement in shar pei, siamese, and oriental SH get hemoabdomen
glomerulus v. medulla: where does amyloid deposit in the dog .v the cat? what are associated signs based on where deposits are?
- dog: more in glomerulus --> proteinuria
- cat (and shar pei): more in medulla --> isosthenuria/azotemia
If there is amyloid only in the medulla, will biopsy find this?
no, wedge or true cut only samples cortex/glomerulus
what is mean age of amyloidosis in shar pei? is the relationship familial or breed related?
- 4 yrs; male and female
- black and fawn
- familial relationship
Are amyloid signs in Shar peis usually chronic or acute signs? What is "shar pei fever"?
- SP fever: recurrent acute self-limiting fever and tibiotarsal jt swelling that often resolves on its own
What are clinical findings of abyssinian cats with amyloidosis? 6
- poor haircoat
- weight loss
- small irregular kidneys
what are lab findings for amyloidosis in abyssinian cats? 6
- non-regen anemia
- metabolic acidosis
- variable proteinuria
100% of affected cats w/amyloidosis have medullary or glomerulus involvement?
- medullary - separates tubular cells from basement membrane
- (75% have glomerular)
What is signalment for glomerular disease?
- middle aged-older
- no gender predilection (cats w/GN usu. male)
- any breed w/some familial syndromes