Social Psych T2

  1. What are the 3 components of attitudes? 
    • General evaluations people hold in regard to themselves, other people, objects, or ideas
    • Affective: Emotional reaction
    • “It’s adorable!” +
    • “It’s stupid!”–
    • Behavioral: What you do.
    • “I’m buying action figures!” +
    • “I’m running away from action figures!” –
    • Cognitive: Beliefs about the object“It’s fun!” +
    • “It’s boring!” –
  2. Self‐report measures:
     Asking someone directly.
  3. The Bogus Pipeline
    • Making the participant think you can measure what they really feel. (Lie detector etc)
    • Generally increases the willingness to confess certain behaviors
  4. Covert measures of attitudes:
    • Example: Does it  frustrate  you when children are noisy?
    • – Behavioral observation: When children are noisy, are you rolling your eyes?
    • – Physiological measures
    • – Responses where quick reactions are required.
  5. Quick responses: Lexical Decision
    • Decide whether or not a list or words is aword or is nonsense
    • Faster response to primed words
  6. Mere Exposure Effect
    Simply being exposed to an attitude object repeatedly can cause attitude change

    Increased liking happens for things that are not not negative; repeated exposure to bad things negative; repeated exposure to bad thingscan make you dislike them more.
  7. Social Learning
    • Modeling: Taking after someone else’s attitudes
    • • Operant Conditioning: Rewarding expression of certain attitudes.
    • • Classical Conditioning: Certain attitudes get paired with some other stimulus.
  8. 2 Routes to Persuasion: Elaboration Likelihood Model
    Central Route to processing:
    • People are influenced by the strength and quality of the message.
    • – attitude changes tends to be more permanent
  9. 2 Routes to Persuasion: Elaboration Likelihood Model
    Peripheral Route to processing
    • People do not think critically about the contents of the message but focus instead on other cues
    • attitude changes tends to be less permanent
  10. Chaiken (1980): What determines the route we use?
    • –3 IV’s• Importance of message to target
    • • # of strong arguments
    • • Likeability of source
    • DV: amount of persuasion

    Results: If something had high relevance to someone, their expertise and likeable traits mattered less than something irrelevant.
  11. 3 Factors that determine persuasion
    • SOURCE:‐ Likeability‐ Credibility‐ Number of Sources
    • MESSAGE:‐ Number of arguments‐ Scarcity‐ Subtlety‐ Emotional Appeals
    • Mood: Being in a good mood makes you buystuff more! 
    • Social Proof: Other people should share yourdecision.
  12. Inoculation Hypothesis
    • • Attitudes that have never been questioned are particularly susceptible to persuasion
    • • By overcoming a weak attack against your beliefs, you will build defenses against more powerful beliefs
  13. 3 Types of Social Influence
    ►Conformity – a change in behavior or attitudes brought about by a desire to follow the beliefs or standards of others

    ►Compliance – yielding to a direct, explicit appeal appeal meant to produce certain behavior meant to produce certain behavioror agreement to a particular point of view

    ►Obedience – A change in behavior due to commands of others
  14. Is conformity automatic? What is the evidence
    for this? 
    • The Chameleon Effect: People mimic others’ behaviors automatically without realizing it
    • – Especially Especially liked others
    • • Convergence of social perception:
    • – Sherif (1935): Autokinetic Effect
    • – Asch (1951): Judgment of line lengths
  15. Why do we conform?
    Informational Social Influence:
    We don’t have a good answer, but we want to be accurate, so we use others’ answers.
  16. Why do we conform?
    Normative Social Influence:
    We conform because of social pressure to avoid conflict, embarrassment, etc.
  17. What variables affect conformity?
    • ►Group Size+
    • ►Group Unanimity+
    • ►Gender=
    • ►Age-
    • ►Task/Issue Importance
    • Low importance=
    • High Importance-
    • Easy -
    • Hard +
  18. What are the techniques of compliance?
    • Reciprocity: If you need a favor, give a favor first.
    • Door-in-the-Face technique: after first offering a large request (which is expected to be refused), offer another smaller request. Ex. campus blood drive
    • Foot-in-the-door Technique: First ask for a small request (foot in the door), then follow with a larger request. Ex. Nurses and kidney donations
    • Low-Balling – get compliance on a low-cost request and later reveal hidden additional costs
  19. Milgrim Studies
    Electric Shock etc
  20. Hofling’s study with nurses
    Agreed to give a dangerous dose
  21. Moderators of obedience
    • Lab coat vs no coat
    • Having a dissenter present
    • Responsibility passed on: If someone is ordering us to do something, they take responsibility for the consequences
    • Gradually increasing concessions: Full obedience (450 volts) more likely if people worked their way up to that point
    • Immediacy of Victim: Sitting in the same room as the victim reduced obedience.
    • Immediacy of Authority: We break the rules if the authority can’tsee us.
  22. Zajonc’s Mere Presence Theory
    Why does the presence of others increasearousal?
    • Why does the presence of others increasearousal?
    • – Increased alertness and vigilance.
    • – Evaluation apprehension
    • – Divided attention
    • • In short: Presence of others reduces our ability to plan behaviors.
    • – Thus, automatic responses are predominant: performance on EASY tasks increase, COMPLEX tasks decrease
  23. Social Loafing
    Decreased Arousal
    • • Social loafing involves decreased arousal
    • – No evaluation apprehension
    • • Impairs performance on EASY tasks
    • • Improves performance on COMPLEX tasks
  24. When is social loafing less likely to occur?
    • 1. People believe that their own performances can be identified and thus evaluated
    • 2. The task is important or meaningful to those performing it.
    • 3. People People believe that their own efforts are believe that their own efforts arenecessary for a successful outcome.
    • 4. The group expects to be punished for poor performance.• 5. The group is small.
    • 6. The group is cohesive
  25. Deindividuation
    • Anonymity can reduce personal responsibilityfor own behavior.
    • Mob mentalility
  26. Group Function: Moral Behavior
    • Being cognizant of others’ presence canmotivate prosocial behaviors.
    • -Halloween Halloween Study
    • no mirror present 34% took more than one candy
    • mirror present 12% took more than one candy
    • -IQ Test
    • no mirror 71% violated time limits
    • mirror 7% violated time limits
  27. Group Polarization
    • Informational social influence: People only exposed to arguments in support of their group’s existing viewpoint.
    • Normative social influence: Holding an Holding an extreme view in an extreme group gets you acceptance by the group.
  28. Flowers (1977)
    • More groupthink with High cohesiveness: Groups of friends are less likely to disagree with each other.
    • More groupthink with closed leadership: Prevented debate.

    Groupthink: “A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive ingroup, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action.”
  29. Common Knowledge Effect
    If all members have all of the information:– 83% choose Candidate A after group discussion

    • All members have some unique info: 76% choose one of the LESS qualified candidates
  30. Why do groups do so poorly in brainstorming tasks?
    • • Social loafing
    • •Evaluation apprehension apprehension
    • • Hearing other group members is distracting
  31. Social Identity Theory
    • Basics ideas:
    • 1. People categorize the world into in-groups and out-groups
    • 2. People strive for positive self-concept derive a sense of self-esteem from their in-group identification
    • 3. their self-concept is partly dependent on how they evaluate in-group relative to other groups
  32. Factors that affect initial attraction (FRAPPES)
    • 1. Familiarity
    • 2. Reciprocity
    • 3. Arousal
    • 4. Proximity
    • 5. Physical Attractiveness
    • 6. Evolutionary perspective
    • 7. Similarity
  33. What factors in attractiveness are cross-cultural? Which are not? 
    In Men and women: Large eyes, Prominent cheekbone, Big smile.

    • Men: Large chin
    • Women: Narrow cheeks, High eyebrows
  34. Social Social Exchange Exchange Theory
    • We’re motivated to maximize rewards and minimizecosts in relationships
    • Rewards: any positive outcomes/benefits received from the relationship (e.g., companionship, resources, status, sex)
    • Costs: any negative outcomes/consequences ofthe relationship (e.g., conflict, abuse, expenses)
  35. Equity Theory
    People are most satisfied with a relationship when the ratio between the benefits and contributions is similar for both partners
  36. Attachment Theory
    • Proposes that there are three types of interactions patterns for romantic relationships(derived from earlier work on parent‐childinteraction patterns):
    • – Secure
    • – Avoidant
    • – Anxious/ambivalent
  37. Clark & Hatfield, 1989
    Gender differences in responses to sexual offers
    0% vs 75%
  38. Walster et al (1966)
    Internet dance gig
    physical attractiveness was found to be the most important factor, over intelligence and personality. 
Card Set
Social Psych T2
Notes for social psych test 2