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  1. Used to provide energy and water to southern California and Las Vegas and what is its nickname? 
    Colorado River Dams aka Hoover Dam
  2. -largest dam in the world
    -1 mile long on the Yangtze River
    -helps switch from coal to hydroelectricity
    -dislocation of 1 million people, burial of artifacts, loss of fertile soil on floodplains
    3 Gorges Dam
  3. creates lake Nasser
    Aswan Dam, Nile River
  4. How does dam work?
    • 1. water released from behind reservoir
    • 2. enters dam
    • 3. water spins a turbine machine in dam
    • 4. turbine generate hydroelectricity
    • 5. electricity delivered 2 cities via power lines
  5. dams advantages?
    • -supply water year round
    • -electrical power
    • -recreation benefits =boating and fishing
    • -no air pollution
    • -water used for agriculture
    • -inexpensive electricity
    • -long economic life
  6. dams cons?
    • -expensive to build, loss of human lives
    • -sediments don't flow downstream-->loss of nutrients
    • -evaporation of fresh water behind dam-->increase salinity which affects salinity in fish's habitat (decrease in fish population)
    • -fish cant travel upstream (salmon)
    • -increased risk of disease-->stagnant  water (mosquitoes and malaria)
  7. what happens when dam failure occur?
  8. steelhead and rainbow trout differences? similarities
    • -born in freshwater rivers (rainbow)
    • -swim out to the ocean (steelhead)
    • -same fish but their name depends on their location 
    • -return to same river (travel upstream) to have their babies
    • -if dam is in place, cannot return to have babies -->die
  9. how to solve the dam problem for steelhead/rainbow trout?
    • fishladder!
    • series of steps the fish hop over to travel upstream (get over dam)
  10. diverts or directs water to places in need
    (irrigation, drinking water) 
    water diversion
  11. examples of wter diversion
     LA and Colorado aqueducts
  12. in the nation of kazakhstan
    -rivers to inland sea have been diverted for irrigation
    Aral Sea
  13. -evaporation has increased salinity, no fish species exist
    -salt is blown to surrounding area which causes health problems and decreasing crop population
    Case Study: Aral Sea 
  14. What was Aral sea known for?
    the 4th largest freshwater lake
  15. irrigation
    farmers must heavily irrigate-water crops so plants can grow and remove salt
    water conservation
  16. lessen water: use of lasers, central pivot watering systeams, timers
    efficient irrigation system
  17. -untreated material from water pipes from homes/industry
    raw sewage
  18. releases pathogens (disease causing agents) into ground or surface water
    crack/sewer lines break
  19. -creates 25,000,000 deaths yearly
    -comes from untreated human wastes and animal wastes
    -2.5 billion lack sanitation
    -most serious water pollutants in terms of health 
    -causes diarrhea, cholera, dysentery
    disease causing agents
  20. excess nitrates, phosphates cause eutrophication 
    inorganic plant nutrients
  21. excessive algal growth
  22. example of eutrophication
    red tide = bloom of dinoflagellates
  23. Organic Compounds Oil
    Exon Valdez-->Prince William Sound
  24. what does organic compounds make?
    plastics! and they are found in Africa
  25. In-organic chemicals
    • -heavy metals: Hg, Cadmium, Ni, Pb
    • -comes from: lead pips, coal burning (Hg), mining wastes, tin, Cu on boat hulls
  26. what does inorganic chemical metals cause?
    causes mental retordation
  27. 1932: Chisso Corporation made acetaldehyde
    Hg: industrial byproduct discharged into bay
    Case Study: Minamata Japan
  28. results of Minamata, Japan case study
    • -1st symptom: fish/cats began showing weird signs
    • -1956: humands had lost of motor control -->partly paralized and contored body
    • 1963: "Minamata Disease" traced to Hg from Chisso where people ate fish with Hg
    • -forced to dredge bay and pay victims
    • -1,784 died, 86 million in compensation
  29. -factories/industries locate near land water to cool down
    -raising or lowering temp. from normal levels 
    -from industrial coolant outflors (to cool electrical power plants
    thermal pollution
  30. what are the results of thermal pollution
    • lowers dissolved oxygen levels (O2 in water)
    • thermal shock!
  31. organisms killed by abrupt change in temp. of water
    thermal shock
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