1. the ability to learn a new word with just a few exposures to it
    fast mapping
  2. says that there is no relationship between 2 variables
    null hypothesis
  3. muscle that vibrates and produces sound, aka vocal folds
    internal thyroarytenoid
  4. muscle that adducts vocal folds, increases medial compression
    lateral cricoartenoid
  5. muscle that adducts vocal folds
    transverse arytenoid
  6. muscle that pulls apex of arytenoids in a medial direction
    oblique arytenoid
  7. muscle that lengthens and tenses vocal folds
  8. muscle that abducts vocal folds
    posterior cricoarytenoid
  9. muscles that support that larynx and fix its position
    extrinsic laryngeal muscles
  10. muscles that are primarily responsible for controlling sound production
    intrinsic laryngeal muscles
  11. states that the vocal folds vibrate because of the forces and pressure of air and the elasticity of the vocal folds
    myoelastic-aerodynamic theory
  12. this is caused by the increased speech of air passing between the vocal folds, the "sucking" motion of the vocal folds toward one another
    Bernoulli effect
  13. area 44 is..
    Broca's area
  14. function to regulate motor movement and is critical in the control of speech movement
  15. the muscle that exerts the pull on the eustachian tube, causing it to open
    tensor palatini
  16. primary elevator of the velum
    levator veli palatini
  17. CN V
  18. CN- face (sensory) and jaw (motor)
    CN V- Trigeminal
  19. CN VII
  20. CN- Tongue (sensory) and face (motor)
    CN VII- Facial
  21. CN VIII
  22. CN- hearing and balance
    CN VIII- Acoustic
  23. CN IX
  24. CN- tongue and pharynx (sensory) and pharnyx (motor)
    CN IX- Glossopharyngeal
  25. CN X
  26. CN- larynx, respiratory, cardiac, gastrointenstinal systems
    CN X- Vagus
  27. CN XI
    Spinal Accessory
  28. CN- throat movements
    CN XI- Spinal Accessory
  29. CN XII
  30. CN- mostly tongue movements (motor)
    CN XII- Hypoglossal
  31. study of the sound systems and patterns used to create the sounds and words of a language
  32. variations of phonemes
  33. an indication of interval between two frequencies
  34. the study of word structure
  35. the smallest meaningful unit of a language
  36. a collection of rules that specify the ways and order in which words may be combined to form sentences in a particular language
  37. the study of meaning in a language
  38. type of CP which involves disturbed balance, awkward gait, and uncoordinated movements
    ataxic CP
  39. type of CP which ic characterized by slow, writhing, involuntary movements
    athetoid CP
  40. type of CP which involves increased tone and rigidity of muscles as well as stiff, abrupt, jerky, slow movements
    spatic CP
  41. -a speech-motor disorder caused by peripheral or centeral -nervous system damage
    -monotonous pitch, deviant voice quality, variable speech rate, hypernasal
    -speech sound slurred
  42. -no weakness or paralysis of muscles, however it is difficult to program the precise movements necessary for speech
    -motor-programming disorder
    -caused by central nervous system damage
  43. motor-based approach that focuses on auditory discrimination/perceptual training, phonetic placement, and drill-like repetition and practice
    Van Riper's Traditional Approach
  44. -motor-based approach based on the assumption that the syllable not the isolated phoneme is the basic unit of speech production
    -says that phonetic environment is very important
    McDonad's Sensory-Motor approach
  45. -theory that explains language acquisition as the development of verbal behavior
    -says learning plays a major role
    Skinner's Behavioral Theory
  46. -theory that child are born with a language acquisition device that contains the universal rules of language
    Chomsky's Nativist Theory
  47. -theory that states that cognition and intellectual processes make language acquisition possible
    - children pass through 4 developmental stages
    Piaget's Cognitive Theory
  48. -theory that focuses on how language is learned 
    -emphasizes auditory processesing
    Information-Processing Theory
  49. -theory that emphasizes language function over language structure
    -language develops as a function of social interaction between a child and his environment
    Vygotsky's Social Interactionist Theory
  50. theorist that say stuttering consists of fluency distruption due to classically conditioned negative emotion
    Brutten and Shoemaker- Stuttering as speech disruption
  51. -theorist that says stuttering is a response to tension and fragmentation in speech
    Bloodstein- Stuttering as a Reaction of Tension and Fragmentation
  52. -stuttering treatment that aimed at reducing the abnormality of stutering through cancellations, pull-outs, and prepatory steps
    -goal is normal fluency
    Van Riper- Fluent Stuttering
  53. stuttering treatment that includes airflow management, gentle phonatory onset, rate reduction, normal prosody, and counseling
    Fluency Shaping
  54. -stuttering treatment that seeks to reduce stuttering directly without teaching fluency skills or modifying stuttering in less than abnormal forms
    -uses time out and response cost
    Direct Stuttering Reduction
  55. losing a tangible reinforces after every instance of stuttering
    response cost
  56. -this is heard when the vocal folds vibrate very slowly
    -extremely low pitch
    -sounds crackly
    glottal fry
  57. -sound shrill, unpleasant, somewhat high pitched
    -often caused by  tension of the pharyngeal contrctions and elevation of the larynx
  58. -a bright light source and a small round mirror, angled on a long, slender handel, to life the velum and press gently against the patients posterior pharyngeal wall
    -patient phonates
    Indirect Laryngoscopy
  59. -performed by a surgeon under anesthesia
    -put in through the mouth into the phaynx to view larynx
    direct laryngoscopy
  60. -uses a thin flexible tube containing a lens and fiber-optic light bundles
    -thru nose, over velum, above larynx
    -patient able to speak and sing
    flexible fiber-optic laryngoscopy
  61. -flexible tub thru nose with fiber-optic light tip
    -can be attached to a video
    -can view laryngeal anatomy, physiology, muscosal wave
  62. graph that shows resonant characteristics of the vocal tract and the harmonic nature of the glottal source
  63. - uses flexible fiberoptic laryngoscope or rigid endoscope
    -strobe light
    -shows slow motion movment of vocal folds
    -microphone on neck
  64. -yields an indirect measure of vocal fold closure patterns
    - surface electrodes placed on sides of thyroid cartilage
    -glottal wave forms and specialist observes the vocal form vibration
    Electroglottography (EGG)
  65. -resonance produced by backward retraction of hte tongue
    -the tongue is called too far back in the oral cavity
    Cul-de-sac resonance
  66. -a localized, inflammatory, vasuclar lesion, that is usually composed of granular tissue in a firm, rounded sac
  67. -benign growths of thick, whitish patches on the surface membrane of the muscosa
  68. the narrowing of the subglottic space
    subglottal stenosis
  69. -wart-like growths cased by HPV
    -pink, white, or both may be found anywhere in the airyway
    -cause hoarseness, breathiness, and low pitch
  70. -a membrane that grows across the anterior portion of glottis
    laryngeal web
  71. -an inappropriate closure or adduction of the true vocal folds during inhalation, exhalation or both
    paradoxical vocal fold motion
  72. -stiffining of the joints
    -movement of the artenoids is restricted because of bone-joint disease
    -vocal folds do not close fully
  73. -involuntary
    -neurogenic cause
    -abductor or adductor
    spasmodic dysphonia
  74. -a nonfluent aphasia caused by lesions in the anterior superior frontal lobe
    -echolalaia, perseveration
    -absent or reduced spontaneous speech
    -intact repetition skills
    aware of grammar
    -unfinished sentences
    Transcortical Motor Aphasia
  75. -invasive procedure to measure laryngeal function
    -needles inserted into peripheral laryngeal muscles
    electromyography (EMG)
  76. -most severe form of nonfluent aphasia
    global aphasia
  77. -fluent aphasia 
    -similar to wernicke's aphasia but with repetition intact
    Transcortical Sensory Aphasia
  78. -fluent aphasia
    -similar to wernicke's aphasia but with good to normal auditory comprehension
    conduction aphasia
  79. a loss of previously acquired reading skills due to recent brain damage
  80. the loss or impairment of normally acquired writing skills
  81. -impaired understanding of the meaning of certain stimuli even though there is not periferal sensory impairment
    -can see, feel, and hear stimuli but can't understand their meaning
  82. -dysarthria characterized by artic and prody problems
    -drunk speech
    ataxic dysarthria
  83. -form of dementia where intellectual and langue deterioriation precedes motor deficits
    -memory, new learning, poor reasoning and judgement, behavior changes, self neglect, disorientation, delusions/hallucinations, agressive
    Dementa of Alzheimer Type (DAT)
  84. repeated patterns of movement that are measured per second
  85. the number of times a cycle of vibration repeats itself within a second
  86. damage to the nerve fibers along the asceding auditory pathways from the internal auditory meatus to the cortex 
    retrocochlear disorder
  87. the degree to which a measuring instrument measures what it's supposed to measure
  88. the degree to which a new test correlates with an established test of known validity
    concurrent validity
  89. the degree to which test scores are consistent with theoretical constructs or concepts
    construct validity
  90. a measure of validy of a test based on a throrough examination of all test items to determine if the items are relevant to measures what the test is supposed to measure and whethere the items adequately sample the full range of the skill being measure
    content validity
  91. the accuracy with which a test predicts future performance on a related task
    predictive validity
  92. the consistency with which the same event is repeatedly measured
  93. how similarly a subject's performance is independently measured or rated by two or more observes 
    interjude reliability
  94. the consistency with which the same observer measures the same phenomenon on repeated occasions
    intrajude reliability
  95. the consistency of measures when the same test is administered to the same person twice
    test-retest reliability
  96. a measure of the internal consistency of a test
    split-half reliability
  97. the problem of losing participants as the experiment progresses
  98. sensorimotor 0-2
    preoperational 2-7
    concrete operations 7-11
    formal operations >11
Card Set