Psych Test 3

  1. 3 ways we learn
    • Association: our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence
    • Habituation: process by which we respond less strongly over time to repeated stimuli
    • Sensitization: process by which we respond more strongly over time (especially for dangerous/irritating stimuli)
  2. definition of learning
    learning: is a relatively permanent change in an organisms behavior or thoughts as a result of experience (behvioristic definition)
  3. Who is the father of classical conditioning and what did he study?
    • Pavlov
    • studied digestion in dogs
  4. What is classical conditioning?
    • classical conditioning: kind of learning in which a person or animal comes to associate two kinds of stimuli, one that naturally prompts a given behavior and one that does not.
    • (salivating when seeing food is natural. salivating when hearing a bell is not. the dog is trained to associate the natural behavior of salivating with the stimuli of the bell)
  5. parts of classical conditioning*
    • UCS unconditioned stimulus: stimulus that produces an automatic response (food that makes dog drool)
    • UCR unconditioned response: automatic response to a UCS that does not need to be learned (dog drools)
    • CS conditioned stimulus: initially neutral stimulus, becomes associated with the UCS through conditioning (the bell)
    • CR conditioned response: the behavior that is learned in response to the conditoned stimulus
  6. What are the phases of classical conditioning?
    *discussion or fill in the blank
    • Acquision
    • Extinction
    • Spontaneous recovery
    • Acquision: initial learning stage in which an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place. A Conditioned Response (CR) is established
    • Extinction: gradual decrease and elimination of the CR after the CS is presented repeatedly without the UCS
    • spontaneous recovery: the reappearance of a CR after a delay in exposure to the CS
  7. stimulus generalization
    stimulus generalization: reaction to a stimulus with the same response one has learned to give another similar stimulus
  8. Necessary factors in classical conditioning *
    • 1.  the conditioned stimulus must be strong & distinctive enough for the subject to perceive it easily
    • 2. the order in which the CS and the UCS are presented: present CS just before the UCS
    • 3. the amount of time between the occurrence of the CS and the UCS: a fraction of sec. and a few seconds at the most
    • 4. Conditioning is usually cumulative: each trial builds on the learners previous experience.
  9. What are some applications for classical conditioning? *
    • Advertising: pairing positive UCSs with product CS's. pairing sights and sounds of the product to establish classically conditioned connections between their brands & positive emotions
    • to learn fear: little baby Albert and Dr. Watson
    • to get rid of fear: Mary Clover Jones helped a kid get over his phobia of rabbits. She slowly introduced the rabbit and paired it with his favorite candy
  10. Operant Conditioning
    • AKA instrumental conditioning: type of learning in which behavior is strengthed if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher (big in education)
    • Classical conditioning is based on our natural responses, operant conditioning is based on the changes made to us
  11. People who did operant conditioning
    • Thorndike: studied cats and puzzle boxes. law of effect: the principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences became more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences became less likely
    • Skinner: the operant chamber: AKA Skinner box. a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a reinforcer like food/water. the bar or key is connected to device to record the response (he used rats)
  12. reinforcement
    any event or outcome that strengthens the probability of a response or behavior
  13. reinforcer
    any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
  14. positive reinforcement *
    the positve outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the probability of the behavior. adds something pleasant
  15. negative reinforcement *
    removal of a negative outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the probability of the behavior. removes something unpleasant (like mom stops nagging when you finally clean your room)
  16. punishment *
    the outcome or consequence of a behavior that weakens or decreases the probability of the behavior. Administers something unpleasant
  17. positive punishment
    administer an aversive stimulus like a spanking or a ticket
  18. negative punishment
    withdraw a desireable stimulus like time out or revoking drivers license
  19. Disadvantage of Punishment (6 of them) *
    • 1. results in unwanted fears
    • 2. conveys no informatino to the organism (kid doesnt know why being punished)
    • 3. justifies pain to others
    • 4. causes unwanted behaviors to reappear in its absence; behavior is suppressed not forgotten (like mom punishes me but dad doesn't.)
    • 5. causes agression towards the agent
    • 6. causes unwanted behavior to appear in place of another
  20. difference between punishment and negative reinforcement
    punishment is administering something unpleasant, negative reinforcement is removing something unpleasant
  21. shaping
    the operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through sucessive approximations (Shelton gives Penny choclate when she does behavior he likes)
  22. fixed-ratio schedule
    reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses (for every 50 apples you pick you get a dollar)
  23. variable-ratio schedule
    reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. behaviors like gambling and fishing
  24. fixed interval schedule
    reinforces a response ony after a specified time has elapsed (time out)
  25. variable interval schedule
    reinforces a reponse at unpredictable time intervals, which produces slow, steady responses
  26. difference between ratio schedule and interval schedule
    ratio schedule is the number of responses, interval schedule is the amount of time
  27. automatic processing
    • unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time and frequency
    • space: while reading a book you automatically encode the place of a picture on the page
    • time: unintentionally note the events that take place in a day
    • frequency: effortlessly keep track of things that happen to you
  28. effortful processing
    encoding that requires attention and conscious effort; like memorizing a monologue
  29. 3 memory effects
    • 1. spacing effect: we retain info better when we rehearse over time
    • 2. serial position effect: we remember stuff at the beginning and ends of lists better than the middle
    • 3. ?
  30. 3 ways we encode
    • by meaning: process the meaning of something by associating it with something we already know.
    • by images: mental pictures help us remember, as well as mnemonics and acronyms
    • by organization: chunking and Hierarchies
  31. 4 types of mnemonics with examples
    • pegwood method: rymes. I before E except after C
    • acronyms: PEMDAS
    • Method of Loci: place imagery. pass taco bell and the mall to get to Cook Out
    • keyword method: the spanish word for letter is carta. think of a cart with a letter in it
Card Set
Psych Test 3
Chapters 7 on Learning and 8 on Memory