What is an hypothesis? Can one experiment prove a hypothesis is correct?
- Proposed explanation for an observation, proposed answer to a question.
- You must do many experiments not just one.
What is an experiment?
Contrived situation designed to test a specific hypothesis the experimented controls or manipulated the conditions of the experiment.
What is a control group. What is a placebo. What is the placebo effect.
- CG- Does not get the treatment/drug
- P-mimics the treatment
- PE- people believe its going to work even if they are not taking anything.
What is a double blind study.
The subject and the researcher doesn't know what group is which
What does it mean when a study finds an association between two variables. Does an
association show cause and effect.
No because it doesnt necessarily mean ones causes the other they are just correlated but they dont cause each other.
What causes a cold. What can you do to lower your risk of catching a cold.. What
can you do to help reduce the duration of a cold.
- Viruses cause colds.
- More Sleep, washing hands, stress level.
- More sleep and zinc can help duration.
Can supplements boost your immune system. Can vitamins boost your immune system.
- You can't boost your immune system. Sleep does help though.
- If you are old or have a bad immune system then vitamins will help but if you are normal they wont do anything.
Since herbal supplements are natural, can we assume they are safe.
Why do we have to eat. What are the nutrients.
- Chemicals to build cells, maintain, and repair cells
- Energy to make it through the day and night
- Regulate body functions
- Nutrients- material that can be broken down--raw materials--can be used for the goals of eating.
What nutrient is the major source of energy.
What types of foods are carbohydrate, a protein, a fat.
What are the micronutrients.
- Vitamin minerals.
- Needed in small quantities.
Why are complex carbohydrates better for you than simple carbohydrates.
- Simple are quickly broken down- quick energy
- Complex carbs take longer to breakdown- longer energy- fuller longer
Do we need to eat fat.. Why.
- High in calories--energy
- Tissue repair (cell membrane)
- Skin and joints need fats and oils
What is an enzyme. What does an enzyme do. Why are enzymes important.. What
causes lactose intolerance.
- Acts on a substrate and creates a product or products.
- Put molecules together or break them apart.
- LI- the inability to break down lactose into glucose and galactose
What is an essential amino acid. What is a complete protein.
- AA- body cant make them, must eat them on a regular basis.
- The R group makes the different amino acids.
- CP- has all eight essential amino acids. Found in meat, mike and eggs, rice and beans.
What are the three kinds of fats we talked about in class. Which kind should you
- Saturated- fats--carbon are saturated with hydrogen
- Unsaturated- oils, spoil easier, does not raise cholesterol.
- Transfat- artificially added hydrogens to it
Can vitamins be toxic if taken in too large a quantity. Can vitamins prevent cancer.
Why should you not boil vegetables in lots of water.
Because the water dissolves the vitamins.
What is your instructors good advice for eating.
- Everything in moderation
- Lower saturated fats
- Eat more fruits and veggies
- Avoid heavy use of salts and sugars
- Do not depend on drugs and fancy preparations
- Avoid transfats
- Enjoy your food
What has research shown about antioxidant supplements.
They don't seem to do a lot of good.
prevent free radical formation, vitamins
What is natural selection?
- Natural variations in things based on the premiss that there is natural genetic variation in thing.
- Some traits inherited give an advantage that helps someone with a trait of survival.
What does it mean when something is pathogenic. Are all bacteria and viruses bad
- Path- Causes diseases- common illness (strep throat, ear infections and pink eye)
- No, because there is good bacteria... Non-Pathogenic bacteria. Helps crowd out other bad bacteria, doesn't leave room for bad stuff to grow.
Do antibiotics kill viruses
- No you can't kill viruses.
- Antibiotics kill bacteria
- Interferes with process of bacteria by making a cell wall.
- Doesn't let it do what its suppose to do.
What is an antigen. How can the immune system tell when something is an antigen
- Antigen- Your invader, non-self thing, foreign
- Your body automatically can tell because it is a non-self thing.
What is made in bone marrow
- Blood Cells
- Some lymphatic cells--white blood cells
What are non-specific defenses. Give examples.
- Defense against any non-self things.
- Skin- physical barrier, easy to wash
- Mucous Membranes- mucous with enzymes
- Normal Bacteria Flora- beneficial bacteria
What does a helper t-cell do?
- Specific for one particular antigen
- Randomly made by thymus
- Binds to the antigen
- Directs immune response
- -Make more helper t cells of the same type
- -Signal B cells to move more antibodies
- Don't kill just signal
What makes HIV so deadly
HIV invades and kills helper t cells
Why do viruses have to invade cells?
They need to cell to reproduce inside human helper t cells.
What is in a vaccination. How does it work
There is traces of the virus/disease so your immune system takes it in and makes you immune to it.
What is combination drug therapy. What does it have to do with natural selection
and drug resistance.
- Start with different variants of HIV particles
- Combination drug therapy reduces replication and survival of all variants
- New mutant are uncommon
- To avoid the 5 drugs it would have to make resistant to all 5 drugs
- based on the premis that there is natural genetic variation in thing
Why can’t a person ever get rid of AIDS?
You cant cure a virus, it is always in you but there is dormant stages.
What does an “HIV test” test for.
- Its tests for the antibodies that are made when HIV enters your body.
- HIV triggers this.
- Its in blood tests.
What is the goal of genetic engineering. What is recombinant DNA.
- GE- Add new genes or give the organism a new trait.
- R DNA- taking DNA from two organisms and splicing it together.
- isolating then cutting the gene out.
How is insulin for diabetics made.
- Take it from someone else and insert it into the diabetic person
- Look in 3-3
What is a genetically modified crop. Are they dangerous.
- Crops that are changed either adding a gene to add resistance or improve nutrition-- lack of vitamin a.
- There are no health concerns. But possibly some environmental concerns but most proven not true when put in real situations.
- Except for when it comes resistant to the thing or if the pollen from one went to a different one.
What do genes code for. What happens when a nucleotide is changed.
What is a mutation. What can happen when a mutation occurs. Are all mutations bad.
- A change in your DNA structure.
- In can change your whole line and could affect you drastically possibly giving you a disease.
What do living organisms inherit from their parents.
- Half of dads- sperm
- Half of moms- egg
What is a karyotype. What is it used for.
- Set of your entire genotype
- all chromosomes- all DNA
What are sex chromosomes, which ones do females have, which do males have.
- 22 pairs of autosomes
- 1 pair of sex chromosomes
- XY-male XX-female
How many chromosomes do human somatic cells have. How many chromosomes do human gametes (egg and sperm) have. How many chromosomes does a fertilized egg have.
- 22 Pairs or 44 Chromosomes (46)
- 1 pair of sex chromosomes.
- 23 in gametes because you need to combine in the new cell to make 46.
- 46 in a fertilized egg
What are homologous chromosomes?
- Carry the same genes not necessarily same alleles
- Mom gives one set of chromosomes and the dad gives on set of chromosomes.
What is an allele. What is homozygous, heterozygous. dominant and recessive.
- Allele- Different versions of the same trait. (left or right thumb on top)
- Homozygous- identical alleles for the a single trait.
- Heterozygous- Two different alleles for a single trait.
- Dominant- shown through in the phenotype
- Recessive- in the phenotype but not shown through
What two things contribute to phenotype?
What is an x-linked gene. Know how x linked genes are passed from parents to
- Particular trait or disease is located on the X chromosome.
- X linked genes are never passed from father to son
- They are never carriers.
- All daughters are affected if father has it
- Females more likely affected.
Know how an non-sex chromosome gene (autosomal gene) is passed from parent to
offspring.. Know how to figure that out (punnet square)
What is a mutation. What does it mean when someone is a carrier of a disease or trait
- Mistake in the copying of DNA
- Alleles come about from mutations
- They carry it but they are not affected by it.
You do not need to know all the steps in mitosis and meiosis, but you should know
what the results of the processes are, and their purposes.
- Mitosis-2 genetically different cells- splitting of DNA- nucleus divides
- Meiosis- 4 genetically different cells- cell division by germ cells- reduces chromosomes number process that makes egg and sperm
What is cancer.
A loss of control over the cell cycle, a failure at the checkpoints.
What do checkpoints in the cell cycle do. What happens when genes that control the
cell cycle are mutated.
- Check proteins- decided if the cell should go on or not.
What is a benign, malignant, and metastatic tumor
- Benign- usually reach a certain size then stop (mole) Does not invade tissue- sits on top. Usually does not cause cancer.
- Malignant- Continues to grow, does not reach a certain size then stops. Invades tissue. Cancer
- Metastatic- some of the cells let go and move through the blood stream to another part of the body.
What is angiogenesis. Are there drugs to stop it.
- Blood New Creation.
- As soon as you mutate this it sends signals to the blood vessel which makes it grow toward it. Grow into the tumor which then makes the tumor start to grow. Taking blood from tissue which then begins to die.
What causes cancer to metastasize (spread).
What does the p53 gene do. (We care because most human cancers contain a mutation
of the p53 gene) . What happens when it is mutated
- Carries instructions for a protein that checks DNA
What is meant by “inheriting the risk of cancer”. Is most cancer inherited or spontaneous.
Why does chemotherapy have so many side effects
Because it is attacking your immune system. It is taking away and not producing more cells. It takes away your ability to fight off infections.