SOC 3200

  1. Way we make sense of the world
    • depends on the cultural world and time period we live in
    • fluid process CHANGES
  2. A lot of what we think we know is not true
  3. 2 reason why we like misinformation
    • we want this type of this info to be true since it's easy to follow and mamke sense
    • we tend to focus on the most extreme ends of the explanation instead of the more likely scenario
  4. Problems of Rational Choice Theory
    • Human cognition is completely rational
    • Indiv do their best to be right and hold correct opinions

    • doesn't leave room for irrational humans
    • negative view of human nature
  5. Naive Scientis theory
    • Looks for
    • Consistency of a persons actions (do they always behave this way)
    • Consensus (DO others behave this way)
    • Distinctiveness of Actions (only one to behave this way)

    Not realistic takes a lot of mental energy
  6. Cognitive Miser
    when a person attempts to adopt strategies that simplify complex thinking by ignoring info, overusing other info & accepting uncomplete information
  7. Decoy
     an alternative that is clearly inferior to other possible selections-but serves the purpose of making one of the others look better by comparison. 
  8. Contrasting Effect
    when any object is contrasted to something similar but not as good
  9. priming
    a procedure based upon the notion that ideas have been recently encountered or frequently activated are more likely to come to mind and thus will used in interpreting social events. 
  10. framing
    whether a problem or decision is presented in such a way that it appears to represent the potential for a loss or gain. 
  11. Judgemental Heuristics
    mental shortcut for solving a problem

    availability:refers to judgements based upon how easy it is for us to bring specific examples to mind
  12. Representative Heuristics
    • when we focus in the similarity of 1 obj. to another to conclude the the 1st obj. acts like the 2nd one.
    • used to form impressions and judgements about others
  13. Attitude Heuristics
    • making decisions by assining obj. either good or bad categories
    • play a major role in what we "know" to be true.
  14. Halo effect
    bias in which a good or bad impression affects our inferences and future expectations about the person.
  15. 5 factors that lead to using heuristics
    • when we dont have time to think
    • overloaded with information
    • when the issue is not important
    • when we dont care to think about it
    • when we have very little actual knowledge to make the decision
  16. self-fulfilling prophecy
    • when a person begins to act on the impressions they recieve from others
    • powerful when you can get ppl to internalize a neg. stigma about themselves
  17. In Group and out group
    • common ways to categorize ppl is to group them
    • in group(my group)
    • out group (their group)
  18. In group favoritism
    see one's in group as better than others and hence give out rewards to those of your group
  19. Conservative Cognition
    • idea that we try to preserve what is already establish to maintain our current knowledge, beliefs attiudes and stereotyoes
    •  necessary because the world wouldn't be stable
  20. Self Justification
    the tendency to justify ones action in order to maintain their self-esteem
  21. cognitive dissonance
    • a state of tension occurrs whenever an indiv. holds 2 cog. that are psychologically inconsistent
    •  ie smoking even though we know it causes cancer
    • unpleasant
  22. foot in the door technique
    process of using small favors ro encourage ppl to fulfill larger request
  23. irrevocability of a decision
    idea that not being able to change the decision you made produces dissonance that needs to be reduced
  24. Aronsons theory of dissonance
    • focuses on the way ppl view themselves (self conceptualization)most po werful in  situations where the self concept is threatned
    • * based on the assumption tht most indiv. like to think of themselves as decent ppl who would not ordinarily mislead somone
  25. 2 instances where dissonance effects are the greatest
    • ppl feel personally responsible for their actions
    • when their actions have SERIOUS consequences
  26. Inadequate rewards
    • recieving insufficient rewards for performing a given task or job.
    • if a person accepts a low paying dull job they find benefits or posititves about it in some way
    • increasing rewards to the point of over rewardung can extinguish sense of enjoyment
  27. idea of praise
    • praise can be beneficial but only if it is done in moderation and in a way that makes a person feel competent
    • genuine
  28. Mild Punishment
    • creates dissonance that makes a person question their self concept
    • best way to go
  29. justification of effort
    idea that if a person goes through a difficult experience in order attain a goal , it becomes more attractive
  30. Dehumanize
    process of seeing victims as nonhumans,which validates aggression and makes it easier
  31. dissonance reduction
    Largely unconcious process but does not remove responsibility
  32. High self esteem vs low self esteem
    • indiv feel more dissonance when they do something stupid
    • low self esteem feels less dissonance if any
  33. Aggression or Aggresive Actionq
    • an intentional action aimed at doing harm or causing pain 
    • preplanning
  34. Hostile Aggression
    ana ct of agression stemmed from anger aimed at inflicting  pain or injury
  35. Instrumental Aggression
    • an intention to hurt the other person, but theh hurting to hurt the person besides causing pain
    • hit a model to affect their career
  36. Aggression
    • is not purely instinctual or innate
    • aggresion in lower animals are inconclusive, determined by the animals previous social exp. as well as the current social context
  37. altruism
    • any acts tht benefits another person but does not benefit the helper
    • involves personal cost to helper
  38. catharsis
    • a release of aggressive energy that has built up over time 
    • fooling yourself by thinking the stress is gone
  39. causes of aggression
    • violence
    • amugdala
    • testosterone
    • alcohol
    • pain and discomfort
    • fustration from nt reaching a goal
    • relative deprivation ( having less than others)
    • rejection
    • exclusion
    • taunting
Card Set
SOC 3200
SOC 3200