1. Part of eukaryotic DNA that closely resembles bacterial DNA, and codes for proteins, tRNA, and rRNA
    Mitochondrial DNA
  2. Histology of thyroid: mononuclear, parenchymal infiltration with well-developed germinal centres
  3. Glucocorticoids increase protein synthesis in what organ?
    Liver (to make gluconeogenesis to increase BG)
  4. Consequences of hyperaldosteronism (Conn syndrome)
    • Increased Na+ retention and K+ excretion (hypokalemia)
    • Metabolic alkalosis
    • can cause muscle weakness and paresthesias
  5. Cushing's syndrome skin manifestations
    • Easy bruising
    • Inhibited collagen and matrix GAG formation
    • Thinner, weaker skin and connective tissue
  6. Increase in which blood cell with Cushing's
    • Neutrophils due to demargination of cells previously attached to the vessel wall
    • All other cell lines decrease
  7. How does TNF-a decrease insulin's action?
    Activates serine and threonine kinases, which phosphorylates IRS-1 residues. This prevents tyrosine IRS-1 phosphorylation by insulin

    catcecholamines, glucocrticoids, and glucagon do the same thing to cause insulin resistance 
  8. Initial commited step of gluconeogenesis
    pyruvate to oxaloacetate, and then OAA to phosphoenylpyruvate
  9. Phosphonylpyruvate requires the phosphorylation of GTP. What step in the Kreb cycle makes it?
    succinyl coA to succinate
  10. Kallmann syndrome, deficiency of what peptide hormone
    Absence of GnRH released from the hypothalamus
  11. Histology of medullary thyroid carcinoma
    Polyglonal cells with amyloid deposits from the parafollicular cells (calcitonin)
  12. Histology of papillary thyroid cancer
    Psammomma bodies
  13. Sheehan syndrome decreases what hormones
    Panhypopituitarism (multiple hormones) due to necrosis of the anterior pituitary
  14. What enzyme elevation can be the first manifestation of hypothyroidism besides the thyroid hormones
    creatine kinase (hypothyroid myopathy)
  15. Thyrotoxicosis, increased ESR, tenderness over the thyroid gland, reduced iodide uptake
    • deQuervain's thyroiditis
    • Granulomas
  16. High blod glucose levels in pregnancy cause what to the fetus
    • Can cross the placenta, causing islet cell hyperplasia
    • Hyperinsulinemia causes a big head
  17. Metformin is contraindicated in what situations
    Renal failure, liver dysfunction, CHF, alcoholism, sepsis
  18. In a 95% CI, mean +-SD range is from 200-240. How many people lie above 240 in a sample of 400?
    2.5% on each side, 2.5% x 400 = 10 people
  19. Menotropin (human menopausal gonadotropin) acts like FSH or LH
    • FSH
    • formation of a dominant ovarian follicle
  20. Increased AFP levels
    • Made by fetal liver, GI tract and yolk sac (early gestation only)
    • Dating error (under-estimation of gestational age)
    • NTD
  21. Increased estriol levels
    • Placental and fetal abnormalities
    • intrauterine growth retardation
  22. Person exposed to radioactive iodide. Treatment
    • Potassium iodide
    • prevents thyroid absorption of the chemical by competitive inhibition
  23. Which drugs can improve exopthalmos in Grave's disease
    • High-dose glucocorticoids (e.g. prednisone) as they decrease inflammation and extraocular volume
    • (doesnt work with anti-thyroids)
  24. Difference between Conn syndrome and diuretics in metabolic alkalosis
    • Conn syndrome: hypokalemia and normal sodium
    • Diuretics: hypokalemia and hyponatremia
  25. Functions of thyroid peroxidase
    • 1. oxidation to organic iodide
    • 2. binding to tyrosine residues on TBG
    • 3. forms mono-tyrosine which can make di-tyrosine to make T3 and T4

    nb secretion of TSH controls all else
  26. How do sulfonylureas work?
    • Inhibit K+ATP channels
    • Keeps the channels closed so it causes a depolarization, allowing Ca+2 to enter the cells
    • This causes exocytosis of insulin
  27. Anorexia nervosa and amenorrhea
    Loss of pulsatile secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus which decreases FSH and LH
  28. Features of Laron dwarfism
    • Defective GH receptors
    • High GH hormone levels
    • Decreased linear growth (due to decreased IGF-1 from the liver)
  29. Three domains of G protein receptors
    Examples of such receptors
    • Extracellular: ligand-binding
    • Transmembrane: a-helices with hydrophobic AA (valine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine)
    • Intracellular: G protein activation

    TSH, LH, and FSH
  30. Affects of PPAR-gamma regulators (e.g. glitazones)
    • Increases insulin sensitivity (decreases insulin resistance)
    • Increases GLUT-4
    • Increases FA transport protein
    • (regulates F.A. storage and glucose metabolism)
    • Increases adiponectin levels
  31. Most common tumor of the pituitary (cell type)
    Most abundant cell of the pituitary 
    • Pituitary adenoma: prolactinoma - lactotrophs
    • Somatotrophs (GH stimulators)
  32. Where is rRNA made?
  33. Which AA can be given safely to a patient with pyruvate DH deficiency?
    • Lysine and Leucine (ketogenic)
    • will not increase lactate levels as PDH patients will have lactic acidosis
  34. Function of aspartate
    • Acidic
    • made from asparagine
    • transaminated with a-ketoglutarate to make glutamate and oxaloacetate (intermediate for TCA cycle)
  35. How does insulin promote glycolysis?
    • Activates PFK-2 (dephosphorylates it), which converts F6P to F2,6.BP
    • F2,6BP then activates PFK-1, which converts F6P to F1,6BP
  36. Role of neurophysins
    • Post-translational processing of oxytocin and ADH
    • Made in the hypothalamic nuclei and released into circulation from axon terminals in the posterior pituitary
  37. Confirmatory test for menopause
    • FSH level will be increased
    • (LH also increases but occurs later in menopause)
  38. Drug that competes with testosterone and DHT for androgen receptors
    • Flutamide
    • (does not affect testosterone production by Leydig cells)
  39. Drug that decreases steroid hormones in adrenals and gonads
    Ketoconazole (weak anti-androgen affect)
  40. If a reaction has a negative free E change, what will the concentrations of products and reactants be? And equilibrium constant?
    [products] > [reactants]

    K >1
  41. 1st step of vitamin D synthesis
    • Liver
    • cytochrome P450 25-hydroxylase
    • converts cholecalciferol to 25-hydroxycalciferol
  42. which hormones increase BG levels
    • TSH (increases glucose absorption in the gut)
    • Increasing insulin resistance to tissues:
    • GH
    • cortisol 
  43. Patient presents with hyper-thyroid symptoms and now develops delirium, abdominal pain, and vomiting
    Dx and consequences
    • Thyrotoxicosis crisis (abrupt onset)
    • stressors induced: infection, childbirth
    • consequences: thyroid storm: CHF, pulmonary edema, death
  44. Grave's and Hashimoto's - type of hypersensitivity?
    • Grave's: Type II HS (non-cytotoxic)
    • Hashimoto's: Type IV HS (cell-mediated cytolysis)
  45. Function of KI and perchlorate in treatment of thyroid disease
    Inhibits the Na+/iodide symporter (uptake of iodine)
  46. Insulin increases fat storage by activating what enzyme
    Acetyl-coA carboxylase
  47. Affects of glucagon on glycogenolysis
    Glucagon - cAMP - PKA - glycogen phosphorylase kinase to make glycogen phosphorylase (RLS of glycogenolysis)
  48. Tx for 2nd hyper-PTH that occurs with renal failure
    • Cincalcet (increases Ca+2 sensitivity on chief cells of the PTH gland to extracellular Ca+2)
    • Decreases PTH hormone release
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