Test 2 Micro: (Ppts 18-19)

  1. Which form of Bacillus anthracis has spores and how long does it take them to develop?
    Non-clinical (2-3 days)
  2. What are the two plasmids in B. anthracis?  What do they code for?
    pX01, pX02

    pX01= Protective Antigen (PA), Edema Factor (EF), Lethal Factor (LF)

    pX02= Carries the capA, capB, and capC genes for capsule synthesis (only observed in clinical)
  3. Anthrax receptor?
    TEM8, CMG2
  4. How Anthrax Works?
    • PA binds to anthrax receptor
    • Cleavage of PA by host furin proteases (smaller part is released, larger part stays attached)
    • PA63 heptamer fors prepore
    • LF and/or EF binds to prepore complex (competitive binding)
    • Endocytosis into acidic compartment
    • PA heptamer forms pore in compartment
    • LF and/or EF released into cytosol
  5. What is LF?  What does it do?
    Zing metalloprotease; cleaves MAP kinase --> Necrosis, hypoxia
  6. What is EF?  What does it do?
    Adenylate cyclase;  increases intracellular cAMP --> Edema
  7. What makes up the B. anthracis capsule?
  8. Stimulates macrophages to release TNF-a, IL-1B, and other cytokines.
    Lethal toxin
  9. Which of the B. anthracis factors is most immunogenic?
  10. LF and EF inhibit?
    Innate immunity
  11. B. anthracis is usually infects humans who have exposure to animals because it primarily affects _______.
  12. 3 types of anthrax?
    Which two types have no person-to-person spread?
    • 1.  Inoculation through exposed skin (95%)
    • 2.  Ingestation
    • 3.  Inhalation

    No person-to-person spread in Ingestation or Inhalation anthrax
  13. Which form of Bacillus anthracis  causes ulcers in mouth or esophagus?  What is anothr fact about it?
    Ingestion (GI); It is 100% fatal.
  14. Which form of B. anthracis has a prolonged latent period?
    Inhalation (spores can remain latent in nasal passages or reach lower airways)
  15. Form of B. anthracis that shows mediastinal widening on chestXR?
    Inhalation; Nearly 100% mortality in 3 days
  16. B. anthracis:
    Gram-P or Gram-N?
    Arrangement, shape?
    Spores seen in cultures grown in?
    Stain spores with?
    • Gram-P
    • Rods, single or in chains
    • Low CO2
    • Malachite green
  17. 3 stains for the polypeptide capsule of B. anthracis.
    India ink, McFadyean methylene blue, DFA
  18. B. anthracis has what kind of capsule?
    Name the other non-polysacharride capusle.
    • Protein
    • Strep. Pyogenes = Hylauronic acid
  19. What does B. anthracis' colony look like on blood agar?
    What type of hemolysis does it have?  Motility
    • Ground glass
    • No hemolysis, no motility
  20. Treat B. anthracis with?
    What is B. anthracis resistant to?
    Ciprofloxacin or doxycycline (susceptible to penicillin, doxyclcine, and cipro)

    Resistant to sulfonamides and extended-spectrum cephalosporins
  21. B. cereus is opportunistic for:
    • Gastroenteritis
    • Ocular infections
    • IV Catheter-related sepsis
  22. B. cereus:  Gastroenteritis
    Heat-stable, proteolysis-resistant enterotoxin
  23. B. cerus:  Gastorenteritis
    Heat-labile enterotoxin
  24. Bacillus cereus: Ocular Disease (3 toxins)
    • Necrotic toxin
    • Cereolysin
    • Phospholipase C- lechitinase
  25. B. cereus emetic disease usually comes from?
    Contaminated rice
  26. B. cereus diarrheal disease from?
    Contaminated meat, vegetables, or sauces
  27. B. cereus must be cultured from the ____
    food!  (not the feces)
  28. B. cereus:
    • Beta-hemolysis
    • Motile
  29. Prevent B. cereus GI disease with?
    Rapid food consumption after cooking; proper refrigeration
  30. Other Bacillus species:
    Gastroenteritis, opportunistic?
    Autoclave tester?
    Gastroenteritis, opportunistic, pest control?
    • B. mycoides
    • B. sterothermophilus
    • B. subtilis
    • B. thuringiensis
  31. Listeria
    Gram-P or Gram-N?
    Can grow in 1-45 C and in high salt
    Motile at RT
    • Gram-P
    • Facultative anaerobe'
    • B-hemolysis
  32. Which bacteria has end-over-end motility?
  33. Facultative intracellular pathogen
    Listeria monocytogenes (macrophages, epithelial cells, cultured fibroblasts)
  34. Leu-rich proteins that interact w/ glycoprotein receptors on host.
  35. L. monocytogenes attaches and enters ____ in _____
    Enterocytes in Peyer's Patches
  36. What do the Listeriolysin O and 2 PLC's of L. monocytogenes do?
    Lyse phagosome and release bacteria.
  37. What bacteria has ActA?
    What does it do?
    • L. monocytogenes
    • Acta is localized at one pole; coordinates actin assembly
  38. Which type of immunity is important in a L. monocytogenes infection?
    CMI (humoral is NOT important)
  39. Disease of early onset L. monocytogenes
    Ganulomatosis infantiseptica (transplacental)
  40. What bacteria causes bacteremia in pregnant women?
    L. monocytogenes
  41. Bacteria whose hemolysis is enhanced by growing next to S. aureus.
    L. monocytogenes
  42. Treat L. monocytogenes with?  It has a natural resistance to what?
    • Pen or amp (w/ or w/o genatmicin)
    • Has a natural resistance to cephalosporins
  43. Word association:  Ubiquitous
  44. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae:
    Gram-P or Gram-N?
    Ubiquitous in animals; swine
    Major disease
    • Gram-P
    • Pleomorphic
    • Facultative anaerobe
    • Erysipeloid:  Localized skin infection (w/ raised edge)
  45. E. rhusiopathiae is best prevented by?
    Gloves for people at risk (fish handlers, butchers, meat processors, farmers, veterinarians)
  46. Having complex nutritional requirements for growth.
  47. H. influenzae and B. pertussis:
    Fastidious Gram-N Bacilli
  48. X factor
  49. V factor
    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)
  50. Haemophilus influenzae requires what two factors for growth?
    X & V
  51. First bacteria to have its genome completely sequenced?
    H. influenzae
  52. 4 Virulence factors of H. influenzae:
    • Antiphagocytic capsule
    • Endotoxin (LOS)
    • Ciliostatic factor:  arrests cilia motility in vitro
    • IgA Protease
  53. What is NTHi?
    Non-typable H. influenzae (lacks the polysaccharide capsule so Abs agains them don't work)
  54. Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine stimulates __________ immunity
  55. Common cause of COPD exacerbation?
    H. influenzae
  56. Which bacteria colonizes the mucosal membranes of the respiratory tract?
    H. influenzae
  57. Haemophilus aegyptius causes (2 diseases)
    • Conjunctivitis
    • Brazilian Purpuric Fever
  58. Causes chancroids that reemble syphilitic chancer (except these are painful w/ associated lymph node swelling)
    Haemophilus ducreyi
  59. Bacteria colonizes ciliated cells of the respiratory mucosa.
    Bordetella pertussis
  60. 3 Stages of Disease in Bordetella Pertussis:
    • Cattarrhal 1-2 weeks
    • Paroxysmal coughing 2-4 weeks
    • Covalescent
  61. What is used in the B. pertussis vaccine?
    Killed phase I cells
  62. DTP/DTap (What do these letters stand for?)
    • D:  Diphtheria toxoid
    • T:  Tetanus toxoid
    • P:  Whole killed phase I bacterial cells
    • ap:  Pertussis toxoid, adhesin proteins
  63. How should adults be vaccinated against B. pertussis?
    • Tdap 1x
    • Td every 10 years
  64. How do you treat B. pertussis?
Card Set
Test 2 Micro: (Ppts 18-19)
Bacillus, Listeria, Haemophilus, Bordetella