1. Four common denominators of fire behavior on fatal and near fatal fires
    • relatively small fires or isolated areas of large fires
    • in deceptively light fuels, suchs as grass, herbs, and light brush
    • when fire responds to topographic conditions and runs uphill
    • when there is an unexpected shift in wind direction or wind speed
  2. fire triangle
    • heat
    • fuel to burn
    • oxygen
  3. fire behavior triangle
    • weather
    • topography
    • fuel
  4. 3 weather factors that affect fire behavior the most
    • wind
    • temperature
    • RH
  5. dangers of fuse
    • burns at 3,000 degrees
    • slag dripping off
    • smoke and fumes are mildly toxic
  6. When you deploy a shelter what do you do with it
    • cannot reuse it
    • it is placed out of service
    • only plastic practice shelters can be reused
  7. WUI watch out situations
    • wooden construction and wood shake roofs
    • inadequate water supply
    • natural fuels 30-100 ft. or closer to structures
    • extreme fire behavior
    • strong winds
    • poor access and narrow congested one way roads
    • evacuation of public (panic)
    • bridge load limits
  8. Can wildland FF fight structure fires?
    No, no SCBA, violates NFPA standards 1404 and 1500
  9. 9 parts of a fire
    • point of origin
    • head
    • heel
    • flanks
    • finger
    • pocket
    • island
    • spot fire
    • perimeter
  10. difference between fireline and control line
    • fireline- cleared strip down to mineral soil: just big enough to prevent spread
    • control line- all constructed or natural barries used to contain fire: will hold under all conditions
  11. When should you check your shelter
    • visual inspection should be done...
    • -when shelter is issued to you
    • -at the beginning of each fire season
    • - every two weeks during fire season
    • - if you suspect damage
  12. LCES
    • lookouts, communication, escape route, safety zone
    • minimum level of hazard control that MUST be in place before deciding to engage in fire attack
  13. trigger point
    point when something happens or fire gets to certain point where you stop and reconsider tactics
  14. 2 most important functions of shelters
    • reflects radiant heat
    • provides cooler breathable air to protect airway
  15. two types of hazard on fireline
    • subjective hazard- one has control over
    • objective hazard- one has no control over
  16. five steps of risk management process
    • SA look up, look down, look all around
    • hazard assessment
    • hazard control (LCES)
    • decision point
    • evaluate fire conditions constantly changing
  17. progressive and simple hoselays
    • progressive is a trunk lay with laterals of main line
    • simple hoselay is just trunk lay
  18. common handtools
    • pulaski
    • adz hoe
    • single bit ax
    • round point shovel
    • McLeod
    • combi tool
    • fire rake
  19. tools for burnout/ firing blackline
    • fusee
    • drip torch
    • stubby
  20. two mop up methods
    • dry mop up- no water, boneyarding, mixing, digging, separating
    • wet mop up- foam (wet,dry, fluid), pis pump
  21. directions for waterbar and firebar
    • waterbars toward the green
    • firebar cup trench towards black
  22. difference in cup and V trench
    no difference
  23. what is ICS
    • managent tool for responding to emergencies and establishing chain of command
    • adaptable to many types of incidents and size
  24. five functional areas of ICS
    • command- IC
    • finance- processing payments, purchasing, contracts, and cost estimates
    • logistics- support and servie for all incident personnel
    • operations- develops and implements strategy and tactics
    • planning- documenting and displaying tactics for incident
  25. task force and strike team
    • task force- unlike resources
    • strike team- like resources that all have same capabilities
  26. methods to break fire triangle
    • oxygen- spray with water, cover with dirt
    • heat- cool with water or dirt
    • fuel- cutting line
  27. methods of attack
    • direct attack- right along fire's edge or within approximately 20 ft.
    • indirect attack- bump off line to use natrual barrier or ridgeline
    • flanking/parallel attack- similar to indirect
  28. types of line
    • constructed fireline
    • natural control line
  29. hotspotting
    going ahead of fire to put out spot fires or problem areas
  30. cold trailing
    after mop up, going back to ensure no hotspots and fire is completely out, use bare hand to ensure nothing is hot
  31. scratch line
    just enough to stop spread
  32. fireproofing fuels
    scrape away from fire, bury stumps and logs
  33. burning out
    eliminating pockets of fuel to prevent it from building and jumping line
  34. threats to control line
    • spotting
    • rolling debris
    • creeping
    • radiant heat
  35. types of handcrew techniques
    • one lick- hit step hit step
    • bump up- 2 crews, one is ahead when second meets there line they bump ahead
  36. communication methods
    • radio
    • face to face
    • hand signals
    • written
    • mirror flash
    • whistles and airhorns
  37. conditions that can contribute to spot fire
    • dry weather
    • steep topography
    • heavy fuel
    • crown fire
    • whirlwinds
    • torched out, lone tree
    • wind across the fire line
    • punky logs and roots beneath fireline soil
    • snags
    • flashy fuel
  38. radio classes
    • lowband- travels longer distances, more able to bend around mtns.
    • highband- 150-170 frequency range, travels shorter distance, needs repeater to increase range, common on wildland fire ops.
    • ultra high frequency- travel distance is short, used in base camp for logistics
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