an interplay of events occurring in the endometrium, hypothalamus, pituitary glands, and ovaries. Normal feedback regulation of the menstrual cycle depends on an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal mechanism.
The sexual response cycle consists of
The nurse should include questions regarding sexuality when gathering data for a reproductive health history of a female patient. Which principle should guide the nurse when interviewing the patient?
A. Misconceptions and inaccurate information expressed by the patient should be corrected promptly.
More in-depth assessments are required if the patient is sexually active or if problems or concerns are raised during general questions. Sexuality should be included on every reproductive health history whether or not the patient is sexually active. To obtain the most accurate reproductive health history, the nurse needs to correct misconceptions and inaccurate information. The patient's relationship and sexual partner should be discussed even if the patient is monogamous.
The nurse is assessing a woman's breast self-examination (BSE) technique. Which action indicates that a woman needs further instruction regarding BSE?
C. Performs every month on the first day of her menstrual period
BSE should be performed once a month afterthe menstrual period has ended. Using the pads of the fingers is a correct action for performing a BSE. Inspecting the breast while standing before a mirror and changing arm positions are correct actions for performing a BSE. The positioning of the towel and hand is a correct action for performing a BSE.
Pap smears may be performed every A years in low risk women after B negative results on annual examination
Papsmears are performed A for sexually active women or by age B,especially if risk factors for cervical cancer or reproductive tract infectionsare present.
Which is correct concerning the performance of a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear?
B. The woman should not douche, use vaginal medications, or have intercourse for at least 24 hours before the test.
Women should not douche, use vaginal medications, or have sexual intercourse for 24 hours before the examination to prevent altering the cytology results. Pap smears are performed annually for sexually active women or by age 18, especially if risk factors for cervical cancer or reproductive tract infections are present. Pap smears may be performed every 3 years in low risk women after three negative results on annual examination. Only warm water should be used on the speculum to prevent altering the cytology results. The cytologic specimen should be obtained first.
A 42-year-old woman asks the nurse about mammograms, now that she is “getting older.” The nurse should tell her that:
A. The American Cancer Society recommends mammograms every 1 to 2 years for women ages 40 to 49.
The current guidelines indicate that a mammogram should be performed every 1 to 2 years on women between the ages of 40 and 49. Mammograms are best performed beginning at about 1 week after menstruation when the breasts are the least tender. Mammograms are not a substitute for BSE, which should still be performed every month. A biopsy of cells from suspicious lesions is required to confirm a diagnosis of cancer.
The nurse-midwife is teaching a group of women who are pregnant; instruction on Kegel exercises is included in the teaching. Which statement by a participant would indicate a correct understanding of the instruction?
B. “I should hold the Kegel exercise contraction for 10 seconds and rest for 10 seconds between exercises.”
Guidelines suggest that women perform between 30 and 80 Kegel exercises each day. The correct technique for Kegel exercises involves holding the contraction for at least 10 seconds and resting for 10 seconds in between so the muscles can have time to recover and each contraction can be as strong as the woman can make it. Kegel exercises are best performed in a supine position with the knees bent. Kegel exercises should be performed throughout the pregnancy to achieve the best results.
The hormone responsible for maturation of mammary gland tissue is:
Estrogen increases the vascularity of the breast tissue. Testosterone has no bearing on breast development. Prolactin is produced after birth and released from the pituitary gland. It is produced in response to infant suckling and emptying of the breasts. Progesterone causes maturation of the mammary gland tissue, specifically acinar structures of the lobules.
The nurse who provides preconception care understands that it:
B. Could include interventions to reduce substance use and abuse.
Preconception care is designed for all women of childbearing potential. Risk factor assessment includes financial resources and environmental conditions at home and work. Health promotion can include teaching about safe sex. If assessments indicate a drug problem, treatment can be suggested or arranged.
_____ use/abuse during pregnancy causes vasoconstriction and decreased placental perfusion, resulting in maternal and neonatal complications.
Prenatal alcohol exposure is the single greatest preventable cause of mental retardation. Alcohol use during pregnancy can cause high blood pressure, miscarriage, premature birth, stillbirth, and anemia. Caffeine may interfere with certain medications and make arrhythmias worse. Smoking during pregnancy is known to cause a decrease in placental perfusion and is the cause of low birth weight. Chocolate, particularly dark chocolate, contains caffeine. Caffeine may interfere with certain medications and make arrhythmias worse.
Which statement about female sexual response is NOT accurate?
B. The orgasmic phase is the final state of the sexual response cycle.
Men and women are surprisingly alike in regard to physiologic response to sexual arousal and orgasm. Vasocongestion causes vaginal lubrication and engorgement of the genitals. The final state of the sexual response cycle is the resolution phase after orgasm. Arousal is characterized by increased muscular tension (myotonia).
A are a fatty acid classified as a B and are produced by most organs of the body especially the endometrium. C is a potent source of A.
C) menstrual blood
* Prostaglandins are not endocrine hormones, but autocrine or paracrine, which are locally acting messenger molecules
Rape of "women" 12 and older occurred at a rate of A per 1000 in 2007
Almost 1 in A women are affected in the U.S. by violence against them.
Risks for women considering pregnancy after 35 year sof age include the risk for ...
genetic anomolies including trisomy-21 or down syndrome.
Preconception care is appropriate at every encounter, not just maternity and women's health settings, and includes all A as well a B.
A) Risk Factor Assessments
B) nutrition including folic acid
Some women experience localized lower abdominal pain that is called A and coincides with B
Implantation of the fertilized ovum generally occurs ...
approximately 7-10 days after ovulation
The A phase extends from B to approximately 3 days before the next period.
B) the day of ovulation
During the A phase, an B increase in thickness of the C occurs.
B) 8-10 fold
The A phase is a period of B lasting from approximately the C day to D
B) rrapid growth
D) the time of ovulation
The A phase of the ovarian cycle varries from woman to woman and accounts for almost all variations in ovarian cycle length.
The release of A by the anterior pituitary causes the B to create a C and ultimately cause D and the E
A) follicle stimulating hormone
C) Graafian follicle
E) release of an egg or ova
The release of A by the hypothalamus causes the B to release C
A) gonadotropin releasing hormon GnRH
B) anterior pituitary
C) follicle stimulating hormone
Near the end of the menstrual cycle, falling A cause the B to release C
A) estrogen and progesteron
C) gonadotropin releasing hormon GnRH
best time for BSE
5-7 days after menstruation stops or when not swollen or tender
Skene and Bartholin glands: where and what
Skene - on either side of urethra for vaginal lubrication vua musous
Bartholin - posterior to vaginal opening for sexual arrousal lubrication via clear mucous.
Period of gtransition from changing ovian activity before menopause and through the first few years of amenorhea.
When obtaining a reproductive health history from a female patient, the nurse should:
C. Explain the purpose of asking the particular questions and how the information elicited will be used.
Sufficient time must be spent on gathering relevant data. All pertinent questions should be asked, even those that may be embarrassing for the patient, such as questions involving intimate topics. Always use terms the patient can understand. Explaining the purpose of asking the particular questions while obtaining a reproductive health history will help gather honest and relevant data.