During the first year of infant developmentl, what stages might we see?
Motor, Pragmatics, Cognitive, and Phonological
Onset of first words are in ___________ word(s) in length.
During a child's first words, their expressive vocabulary reaches ________ words and utterances are expanded into _____________ word utterances.
The single word period lasts through what ages?
12 months until 2 years of age
To be considered a TRUE word, the child's utterance must:
1. Have a phonetic relationship to an adult word
2. Must be used consistently
3. Must occur in the presence of the referent (implies an understanding of the concept or meaning)
What ages to these follow under:
- 50 word lexicon (average age 19.75 months)
- Word learning is slow in the first half of the second year and then rapidly increases in the second half of the year
- At this point of 50 word acquisition, "word spurt" occurs and two word combinations occur
15-24 months of age
What ages to these follow under:
-Vocabulary spurt, naming insight, nominal insight, or naming exploration
-It refers to a rapid increase in the number of words a child learns and uses
18-24 months of age
Many first words contain one or two syllables.
-VC, CV, CVCV reduplicated, CVCV
-Few CVC words, if there's a final consonant, will likely delete or add a vowel at the end
First lexicon includes several categories of words.
-Most frequent among first 10 words: animals, food, toys
-First words usually apply to a midlevel generality (e.g. dog) and only later to specific types (e.g. boxer) and larger categories (e.g. animal)
Nouns predominate in the first lexicon.
- Most are persons or animals within the environment or objects the child can manipulate
True or False: Children who learn Mandarin, Chinese, Japanese, Kaluli, German, Italian, Hebrew, and Turkish are known to have less nouns than other word classes in their early lexicon.
The ordering of word classes in a sentence generally refers to the order of __________. Give an example.
nouns; "The girl is reading the book."
True or False: In other language such as Korean, German, Kaluli, and Turkish, the verb is found at the end or final position of the sentence.
True or False: Concrete nouns promote less rapid learning because they allow for greater transparency of the mapping between lexical and semantic information.
This refers to the child's use of known information to infer unknown information; learning nouns helps you learn verbs
Children with general nominals less than 50% of their lexicon; more personal-social words
Children with general nominals accounting for more than 50% of their vocabulary; many nouns used
Developed language earlier and more rapidly than expressive children did; had larger vocabularies and reached morpho-syntactic milestones sooner; word spurts; greater growth of verb vocabulary at 20 months and more productve control over function words
What are the purposes of innate biases?
They help make word learning efficent.
Innate biases are also referred to as ____________ or ____________ of word learning.
What must the child differentiate when learning words and learning to speak?
Spoken language and other sounds as labels
The ______________________ states that words label objects, actions, and events.
Principle of reference
Name the five related biases that help the child map a new word.
1. Nameless category principle
2. Principle of Mutual Exclusivity
3. Whole Object Bias
4. Principles of Extendibility
5. Shape Bias
What is the Principle of Conventionality?
It is knowing that there are culturally agreed upon names for things and these names do not change; otherwise, language would be chaotic
A novel word will be taken as the name for a previously unnamed object; cup, comb, novel object (dax)
Nameless Category principle
If a child already has a name for an object, it cannot receive another name; cup, comb
Principle of Mutual Exclusivity
Guides the child to infer that the word label refers to the entire object and not just a part or its motion; car
Whole Object Bias
A word does not refer to only one object but rather a group of objects; A word will label all instances of an object if all of those instances have the same shape and/or function
Principles of Extendibility
Constrains word extension based on shared perceptual features of the original referent and the novel exemplar; moon/ball
This model describes how children coalesce environmental cues and innate biases to learn new words; Posits that children calculate success and failure rate of mapping words to referents; this error signal feeds back into the learning system to improve reliability of coalescing these cues and strategies as the child develops; by 18-24 months, children have learned that the social cue is a more reliable indicator of referent mapping.
The Emergent Coalition Model (ECM) of word learning
Learning a word is a gradual and long term process. It grossly encompasses learning the ____________ (word form or label), the ______________ (word meaning), and _______________ (word class information), plus making connections between various representations.
An initial association is made between word and referent; A related phenomenon has been referred as QUIL (Quick Incidental Learning)
It is the process of enriching lexical-semantic representations after a word is fast mapped into memory; It is enriched through increased frequency of exposure and/or richer quality of exposure
______________ and ________________ information are stored and linked with a distributed network in the brain. For example, "bone": visual (shape and color), thematic associates (dogs chew bones), actions (chewing), proprioceptive-tactile experience of feeling its weight and rough texture, and lexeme.
Lexical and semantic
This spreads neural activation amoung semantic and lexical nodes; before the child develops richer representation, she is most likely to fail to retrieve the intended label.
Associationistic Account of Lexical-Semantic Representations
What are two types of naming errors?
Overextension and Underextension
When a child uses a word too broadly to refer to referents that may be similar in perceptual feature or function; Examples, calling a strange man "daddy"
These words have to narrow a meaning; the use of dog only when referring to a child's dog and not other dogs
What are two traditional theories to explain extension errors?
Children classify and organize referents in terms of perceptual features such as size, shape, animacy, and texture; ball-moon
Semantic Feature Hypothesis
Words are overextended because of the actions or functions performed on objects rather than perceptual features of the referents; "rake" or "sweeping"
Functional Core Hypothesis
How are naming errors classified?
How can word retrieval errors relate to their targets?
Phonologically and Semantically
An inderterminate response
A perseverative response
A visual misperception
How can word retrieval errors relate to their target phonogically?
How can word retrieval errors relate to their target semantically?
How can word retrieval errors relate to their target phonologically and semantically?
How can word retrieval errors relate to their target an indeterminate response?
I don't know, thing.
How can word retrieval errors relate to their target a perservative response?
uses the same word for different objects
How can word retrieval errors relate to their target a visual misperception?
What is the most prevalent type of word retrieval errors? It is usually due to a weak or missing semantic representation of the target word or weak links between semantic knowledge and lexical items.
Semantic errors and indeterminate errors
When is long term memory is stored?
Long term memory is stored after learning.
What is working memory involved in?
Active, online processing of information
The system used to make sense of new information and to integrate new information with known information stored in LTM; it has a limited capacity of resources as to where the information is directed; it allows for temporary storage of information while it is being manipulated or processed
True or False: Word learning is not a life span experience.
During what part of an infant's life does their vocabulary consist largely of nouns?
The first half of the second year
Toddlerhood verb vocabulary __________.
True or False: PS children learn spatial terms, temporal terms, pronouns, conjunctions.
True or False: School age child learns academic and social vocabulary.
True or False: School age children through adolescents and adults learn and use abstract language.
What is the life span lexical learning pyramid?
Infant, toddler, preschool, school aged, pre-adolescent, adolscent, adult