1. Tydings McDuffie Act (1934)
    United States federal law which provided for self-government of the Philippines and for Filipino independence from the United States after a period of ten years.
  2. Treaty of Kanghwa (1876)
    • made between representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Kingdom of Joseon
    • in 1876.
  3. Meiji Restoration of 1868
    also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, Reform or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.
  4. U.S. v. Bhagat singh Thind (1923)
    was a case in which the United States Supreme Court decided that Bhagat Singh Thind, who was a Indian Sikh, settled in Oregon, could not be a naturalized citizen of the United States, because he was not a "white person" in the sense intended in the relevant 1790 statute governing naturalization.
  5. Gentlemen’s Agreement Act 1907
    was an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration, and Japan would not allow further emigration to the U.S.
  6. Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association (HSPA)
    (pull factor in Chinese immigration)was an unincorporated, voluntary organization of sugar plantation owners in theHawaiian Islands. Its objective was to promote the mutual benefits of its members and the development of the sugar industry in the islands.
  7. Tadao Ozawa vs. U.S. (1923)
    was a case in which the United States Supreme Court found Takao Ozawa, a Japanese man, ineligible for naturalization.
  8. People v. Hall (1854) -
    was an appealed murder case in the 1850s in which the California Supreme Court established that Chinese Americans and Chinese immigrants had no rights to testify against white citizens.
  9. Ghadr Party
    was an organization founded by Punjabi Indians, in the United States and Canada with the aim to liberate India from British rule.
  10. California Alien Land Act of 1920 
    prohibited "aliens ineligible for citizenship" from owning agricultural land or possessing long-term leases over it, but permitted leases lasting up to three years.
  11. Kenjinkai and Nihonjinkai -
    is an association whose membership was originally based upon and conceived by people coming from the same prefecture in Japan.
  12. Treaty of Tientsin of 1860
    signed in Tianjin (Tientsin) in June 1858, ending the first part of the Second Opium War (1856–1860).
  13. Salvador Roldan v. LA County 
    1930s court case in California confirming that the state's anti-miscegenation laws at the time did not bar the marriage of a Filipino and a white person.
  14. Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
    United States federal law signed by Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years. This law was repealed by the Magnuson Act on December 17, 1943.
  15. Ethnic Antagonism
    hostilities between different ethnic groups.
  16. Naturilization Act of 1790 
    provided the first rules to be followed by the United States in the granting of national citizenship. This law limited naturalization to immigrants who were "free white persons" of "good moral character".
  17. Picture Brides
    • refers to the practice in the early 20th century of immigrant workers (chiefly Japanese and Korean) in
    • Hawaii and the West Coast of the United States selecting brides from their native countries via a matchmaker, who paired bride and groom using only photographs and family recommendations of the possible candidates
  18. "Paper sons”
    In 1906, the San Francisco earthquake and fire destroyed local public records. Dating from the fire, many Chinese claimed that they were born in San Francisco.
  19. 1924 Immigration Act 
    • also known as Johnson–Reed Act, including the National Origins Act, and Asian Exclusion Act was a United States federal law that limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, down from the 3% cap set by the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921,
    • according to the Census of 1890.
  20. 1875 Page Law -
    was the first federal immigration law and prohibited the entry of immigrants considered "undesirable."
  21. Treaty of Nanking of 1842
    • signed on 29 August 1842 to mark the end of the First Opium War (1839–42) between the United Kingdom of
    • Great Britain and Ireland and the Qing Dynasty of China.
  22. Kakeochi
    used to describe a Japanese woman who would leave her husband.
  23. Rotating credit associations (ROSCA)
    group of individuals who agree to meet for a defined period in order to save and borrow together.
  24. 1917 Barred Zones Act
    Furthermore, it barred all immigrants over the age of sixteen who were illiterate.
  25. 1909 Picture Brides Act
    • were required to have their names entered into their husbands' family registries six months prior to their
    • passport applications, to impede procurement of prostitutes disguised as picture brides.
  26. California Anti-miscegenation law
    were laws that enforced racial segregation at the level of marriage and intimate relationships by criminalizing interracial marriage and sometimes also sex between members of different races.
  27. Internal Colonialism
    a notion of structural political and economic inequalities between regions within a nation state. The term is used to describe the uneven effects of economic development on a regional basis, otherwise known as "uneven development", and to describe the exploitation of minority groups within a wider society.
  28. 1900 Organic Act
    was a United States federal law enacted to provide a government for the territory of Hawaii.
  29. 1923 Cable Act
    effectively revoked the U.S. citizenship of any woman who married an Asian alien.
  30. Huikuan, Sin-min Hoe and KNA
    a secret Korean patriotic society to escape persecution by the Japanese government, they crossed the Yalu River and took trains to Shanghai.
  31. FLU(Filipino Labor Union) 
    • They soon formed multiracial labor unions, demanding a minimum wage of 35 cents an hour, an eight-hour
    • workday, the elimination of labor contractors and the end to racial hierarchy in the assignment of farm jobs.
  32. David Deshler, Horace Allen, Robert Irwin
    the American owner of the East-West Development Company and the Deshler Bank in Korea, to recruit Korean laborers for Hawaii.
  33. March 1, 1919 Movement
    • was one of the earliest public displays of Korean resistance during the occupation of the Korean Empire
    • by Japan.
  34. Great Mahele Land Reform of 1849
    the Hawaiian land redistribution act proposed by King Kamehameha III in the 1830s and enacted in1848.
  35. A Dollar a Day/A Dime a Dance
    • Enticed by the promise of jobs and fair wages, 100,000 Filipinos immigrated to the US between 1924 and 1935
    • to toil on California's farmlands.
  36. The New Puritans: The Sikhs of Yuba City
    This documentary gives the history as well as the present status of the Sikh population in Yuba City, California.
  37. California Alien Land Act of 1913
    • prohibited "aliens ineligible for citizenship" from owning agricultural land or possessing long-term leases over it, but permitted leases lasting up to three years. It
    • affected the Chinese, Indian, Japanese, and Korean immigrant farmers in California.
  38. 1930 Watsonville Riot
    served as a turning point for Asian Americans.  Towns all across California experienced extreme violence and riots for a period of five days.
  39. Dual wage System
    The dual wage or two tier wage system is a pay structure in which different wage scales are set for senior workers and for new workers. Found usually in firms with strong union presence
  40. Orientalism
    term used by art historians, literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects of Middle Eastern, and East Asian cultures (Eastern cultures) by American and European writers, designers and artists.
  41. Japanese-Mexican Labor Association JMLA
    achieved gave first notice to the notion that a multi-racial picket could in fact become a reality.
  42. Diaspora and the Banyan Tree
    To study a banyan tree, you must not only know its main stem in its own soil, but also must trace the growth of its greatness in the further soil, for then you can know the true nature of its vitality. The civilization of India, like a banyan tree has shed its beneficent shade away from its own birthplace... India can live and grow by spreading abroad – not the political India, but the ideal India.”
  43. Occupational ghettoization of Chinese
    Japanese American Women and Domestic Service, 1895-1970
  44. Taxi Dance Hall
    • a type of dance hall where dancers (who are usually young women) called taxi dancers is paid to dance with
    • patrons (usually male).
  45. Push and Pull Theory of Migration
    neoclassical theory that emphasizes tendencies of people to move from densely to sparsely populated areas or from low- to high -income areas, or link migrations to fluctuations in the business cycle
  46. World System Theory of Migration
    a multidisciplinary, macro-scale approach to world history and social change.
  47. 1945 War Brides Act
    • enacted on December 28, 1945 to allow the non-Asian spouses, natural children, and adopted children of
    • United States military personnel to enter the U.S. after World War II.
  48. Komagata Maru Incident (1914)
    involved a Japanese steamship, the Komagata Maru, that sailed from Hong Kong to Shanghai, China; Yokohama, Japan; and then to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in 1914, carrying 376 passengers from Punjab, India. The 356 passengers were not allowed to land in Canada, and the ship was forced to return to India.
  49. Canada’s Continuous Journey Law and Head Tax of
    first attempt to restrict immigration from India was to pass an order-in-council on January 8, 1908, that prohibited immigration of persons who "in the opinion of the Minister of the Interior" did not "come from the country of their birth or citizenship by a continuous journey and or through tickets purchased before leaving their country of their birth or nationality."
  50. Shimon (fingerprinting)
    Documentary on the "Alien Registration Law" in Japan that demands non-citizens to be fingerprinted. These non-citizens are mostly Koreans born in Japan. The Korean Japanese see this as a form of racism.
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