ANTHC 126 Midterm

  1. Archaeology
    the study of items left behind by dead people
  2. Prehistoric
    The span of time before recorded history
  3. Site
    basic unit of place that had phusical traces of past human activity
  4. Artifact
    any object manufactured or modified by humans; the most common thing that archaeologists work with
  5. Feature
    a collection of one or more contexts representing some human non-portable activity that generally has a vertical characteristic to it in relation to site stratigraphy.
  6. Association
    refers to a close relationship between two or more objects that can be proven to be deposited at the same time though the same context
  7. Ice Ages
    "glacial age"

    a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental ice sheets
  8. Fossil
    preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past
  9. Hominid
    term used to refer to the family of "humans" and "relatives of humans closer than chimpanzees"
  10. Bipedal
    walking on two feet
  11. Endocast
    cast of the inside of the skull that reveals certain characterstics about the brain
  12. Chopper
    old stone tool used by the Homo habilis, and Homo erectus like a cooking or skinning knife
  13. Core
    the rock used to make stone tools before it has been manipulated
  14. Handaxe
    • - used by homonids
    • - found in Sima de lose Huesos, Atapuerca, Spain
  15. Levallois Flake
    distinctive tye of stone knapping developed during the Palaeolithic period

    • - found in Le Moustier, France (50,000 ya)
    • - resembles a tortoise shell
  16. Blade
    portion of a tool with an edge designed to cut andor puncture, stab, slash, chop, slice, thurst, or scrape animate or inanimate surfaces of materials

    - may be made from flaking
  17. Spearthrower (Atlatl)
    tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in dart-throwing

    • - shaft with a cup or spur at the end that supports and propels the butt of the dart
    • - originated in France during the Upper Paleolithic period (21,000 - 17,000 ya)
    • - itroduced to America during the immigration across the Bering Land Bridge
  18. Relative Dating
    the science determinging the relative order of past events without necessarily determining their absolute age
  19. Absolute Dating
    the process of determining an approximate computed age based on the ohysical or chemical properties of the materials of artifacts, buildings, or other items that have been modified by humans
  20. Cross-Dating
    the use of commonly recurring objects to date cultures or deposits of unknown date by reference to the occurence of the same kinds of objects in securely dated contexts elsewhere
  21. Stratigraphy
    archaeological dating based on the levels of sediment
  22. Dendrochronology (Tree-Ring Dating)
    scientific method of dating based on the analysis of patterns of tree/growth rings
  23. Radiocarbon (Carbon 14)
    natural occurin isotioe that is used in radiocarbon dating to estimate the age of carbon-bearing materials up to about 58,000 to 62,000 years
  24. Thermoluminescence
    dating by means of measuring the accumulated radiation dose of the time elapsed since materical containing crystalline minerals was either heaved or exposed to sunlight
  25. Pleistocene
    • - (1,700,00 - 10,000 BP)
    • - glaciations; Ice Age
    • - the period in which humans evolved into their present form; Homo erectus were only fossils found in their period
  26. Oldowan Period
    • - (2,500,000 - 1,500,000 BP)
    • - earliest stone tool industry in prehistory being used during the Lower Paleolithic Period (Olduvai Gorge)
    • - humans: Australopithecus
  27. Acheulian Period
    • - (1,500,000 - 100,000 BP)
    • - era of the hand axe
    • - name given to an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture associated with early humans during the Lower Palaeolithic era across Africa and much of W. Asia, S. Asia, and Europe
    • - inhabitants: Homo erectus, archaic Homo sapiens (heidelbergensis)
  28. Mousterian Period
    - (100,000 - 35,000 BP)

    • - predominantly flint tools dating to the Middle Paleolithic (the middle part of the Old Stone Age)
    • - named after Le Moustier, France (a rock shelter in the Dordogne region of France)

    - inhabitants: Homo neanderthalensis
  29. Upper Paleolithic
    - (35,000 - 10,000 BP)

    • - last subdivion of the Paleolithic as it is understood in Europe, Africam ad Asia
    • - includes the last glacial period followed by a warm global period

    - inhabitats: Homo sapiens (modern humans) that used the same crude stone tools as Neanderthals and Homo erectus that evolved and started making more advanced tools
  30. Australopithecus afarensis
    • - 3.9 to 2.9 mya
    • - resided in E. Africa (Laetoli, Tanzania)

    • - "Lucy": (3.2mya) discovered in 1974 brtweem two volcanic layers used to date her
    • - may have made the Laetoli footprints

    • - bipedal but has more ape like toes for climbing, full grown adult based on pelvis (basically the same as modern humans)
    • - bipedal hominid with a small brain and primitive face, pelvis more ape-like, femurs angled in,
  31. Australopithecus africanus
    • - 3.5 to 2.3 mya
    • - found in S.Africa (Taung, S.Africa)

    • - slender build (gracile) than Australopithecus afarensis and significantly more like modern humans
    • - larger cranium (larger brain)
    • - curved fingers for climbing

    - sexual dimorphism present

    - Taung Child: found in Kimberley, S. Africa in 1924, that had a hole at the base of the skill over the spinal column (human like posture)
  32. Australopithecus robustus
    • - 2.0 to 1.0 mya
    • - found in S. Africa (Swartkrans)

    • - resembled Australopithecus africanus, but had some "robust" characteristics
    • - head shaped like a gorillas with a massive built jaw and teeth in comparison to hominins within the Homo lineage
  33. Homo habilis
    • - 2.4 to 1.5 mya
    • - found in E. Africa (Koobi Fora, Kenya and Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania)

    • - diet of scavenged meat and plants
    • - used stone tools
    • - strategic planning involved (collected stones for stone tools in case they would need them for a later time, est. giving tasks within a group)

    - least similar to modern humans of all species in the genus; long arms, ape-like morphology
  34. Homo erectus
    • - 1.8 to 0.3 mya
    • - found in Eurpe, Asia, and Africa (Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia)

    - Turkana boy: discovered in 1984, gave evidence that they were capable of producing souds comparable to modern human speech

    • - low forehead, large brow ridge, but from the neck down almost indistinguisable from a modern human
    • - brain size is bigger than that of Homo habilis, but 2/3 the size of modern humans

    • - used Oldowan and Aceulean tools, indicated use of controlled fire
    • - lived in hunter-gatherer society
  35. Homo heidelbergensis 
    - "archaic Homo sapiens"

    • - 400,000 to 33,000 mya
    • - found in Europe, Africam Asia (Laetoli, Tanzania and Sima de los Huesos)

    - larger brain than Homo ergaster, but very similar

    • - may have been the first to bury their dead
    • - acquired a primitive form of language
  36. Homo sapiens neanderthalensis (Neanderthals)
    • - 130,000 to 35,000 mya
    • - found in Europe (Neander Valley, Germany)

    • - as large cranial capacity of modern humans; less neotenized skulls
    • - stronger than modern humans; more robust than anatomically modern humans
  37. Homo sapiens sapiens (modern humans)
    • - perhaps 200,000 years ago to present
    • - found worldwide

    - vertical forehead that houses larger brains

    - capacity for abstract thoughts and the use of symbolism to express cultural creativity
  38. Hadar
    - located in Etheopia

    - where "Lucy" was found
  39. Laetoli
    - located in Tanzania

    - site of the Laetoli footprints (Australopithecus afarensis)
  40. Olduvai Gorge
    - located in Tanzania

    • - occupied by Homo habilis, Homo erectus, and Homo sapiens
    • - olduvian tools, Lithic flakes
  41. Koobi Fora
    - located in Lake Turkana

    • - Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis, and Homo erectus
    • - large quantities of stone tools (Olduwan and Acheulean)
  42. Zhoukoudien (Choukoutien)
    - caving system in Beijing, China

    - Peking Man: first specimen of Homo erectus
  43. Olorgesailie
    - geological formation located in East Africa

    - inhabitants: Homo erectus

    - a large number of Acheulean hand axes found here
  44. Torralba and Ambrona
    - located in Soria, Spain

    - large number of remains of stone tools that suggest early hominid hunting and scavenging and hunter-gathering
  45. Terra Amata
    - located on the slopes of Mount Boron in Nice (26m above current sea level of the Mediterranean Sea)

    • - holds traces of the earliest domestication of fire in Europe
    • - stone tools madeout of beach stones
  46. Shanidar Cave
    - located in the Bradsot mountain of the Zagros Mountains (Erbil Governate, Iraq)

    - holds nine skeletons of Neanderthals of varying ages that suggest that Neanderthals had funeral ceremonies, burying their dead with flowers
  47. Teshik-Tash
    - located in Uzbekistan, Asia

    - remains of a male Neanderthal child discovered with five pairs of Ibex horns (funeral ritual)
  48. Mt. Carmel Caves (Kebara, Qafzeh, et-Tabun)
    - Kebara: most complete Neanderthal skeleton found to date ("Moshe")

    -Qafzeh: skulls found that show "neanderthal features" before the arrival of Neandertahls in the region

    - Et-Tabun: ---
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ANTHC 126 Midterm
A review of terms for my ANTHC 126 Midterm