Lab Meds

  1. warfarin (Coumadin)     HIGH ALERT
    *prevents thromboembolic events by inhibitting action of vitamin K (clotting)
    *takes several days to reduce clotting factors in plasma
    • side effects:
    • abnormal bleeding, cramps, nausea, fever, dermal necrosis

    • interventions:
    • *assess for bleeding/hemorrhage
    • *assess for signs of thrombosis
    • *monitor PT and INR frequently
    • *monitor hepatic function and CBC periodically
  2. tramadol
    *centrally acting nonopiod analgesic
    *decreases pain by inhibiting reuptake of seratonin and norepinephrine in CNS
    *around the clock management of moderate to severe pain
    • side effects:
    • dizziness, headache, constipation, nausea
    • can cause seizures and dependence

    • implications:
    • *assess BP and resp rate before admin
    • *assess bowel function frequently
    • *monitor for dependence/tolerance
  3. alendronate
    *bone resorption inhibitor
    *drug for osteoporosis
    *inhibits osteoclast activity
    • side effects:
    • musculoskeletal pain, diarrhea, nausea, altered taste, pathological fractures if used > 6 months

    • implicatications:
    • *avoid calcium supplements
    • *avoid milkk and dairy products
    • *monitor serum calcium levels periodically
  4. citalopram
    *selective seratonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) in CNS
    • side effects:
    • apathy, insomnia, anorexia, ab pain, nausea, tremor
    • can cause suicidal thoughts

    • implications:
    • *monitor for mood changes and GI issues
    • *assess for sexual disfunction
  5. metoprolol  
     ---hold for sysBP<110 or apical pulse <60
    *blocks stimulation of beta2(myocardial) receptors
    *lowers BP, heart rate
    • side effects:
    • fatigue, weakness, bradycardia, erectile dysfunction, mental status change, pulmonary edema

    • implications:
    • *monitor all vitals before admin
    • *monitor InO
    • *teach patient re: taking vitals, dizziness, hazards of abrubt discontinuing
  6. lisinopril    
    ---hold for sysBP<110 or apical pulse <60
    *angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
    *systemic vasodilation by blocking vasoconstrictors *lowers BP/reduces workload of heart
    side effects:cough, headache, dizziness, hypotension, rash, increased potassium levels, taste disturbances, angioedema

    • implications:
    • *monitor BP/pulse
    • *monitor electrolytes and CBC
    • *watch for signs of angioedema (dyspenia, facial swell)*teach patient re: salt/potassium intake, dizziness, BP readings
  7. furosemide
    *inhibits reabsorption of sodium and chloride
    *treats acute HF by removing large amounts of edema flluid in a short time
    • side effects:
    • electrolyte imbalance, hypokalemia, aplastic anema

    • implications:
    • *assess weight, InO, edema, and mucus membranes
    • *monitor BP, pulse
    • *fall alert for geriatric patients
    • *assess for tinnitus, hearing loss
  8. potassium chloride
    *electrolyte supplement
    *treats/prevents hypokalemia, alkalosis, muscle weakness, dysrhythmias, cardiac arrest
    • side effects:
    • nausea, vomitting, diarrhea, confusion

    • implications:
    • *assess for hyperkalemia
    • *monitor serum potassium levels periodically
Card Set
Lab Meds
Lab Meds 10/26