Jazz History 2

  1. Pre Bop Players
    • Art Tatum
    • Charlie Christian
  2. Bop Pioneers
    • Charlie Parker
    • Dizzy Gillespie
    • Bud Powell
    • Kenny Clarke
    • Thelonious Monk
  3. Cool Jazz Players
    • Miles Davis
    • Gerry Mulligan
    • John Lewis and MJQ
    • Paul Desmond
    • Dave Brubeck
    • Lennie Tristano
    • Lee Konitz
  4. Hard Bop Players
    • Art Blakey
    • Horace Silver
    • Clifford Brown
    • Max Roach
    • Cannonball Adderly
    • Wes Montgomery
  5. Art Tatum
    • Most extraordinary of all pianists and jazz musicians
    • Legally blind but possessed no musical or technical limitations
    • Reharmonized popular songs in ingenious way
  6. Charlie Christian
    • Started the use of amplified guitar
    • Influenced by Django Reinhardt
    • Joined Benny Goodman Band in 1939 and also played at Minton's Playhouse
  7. Charlie Parker
    • Alto Sax
    • Product of Kansas City
    • Nicknamed "Bird"
    • Impacted all jazz players
    • Created new jazz language (way of playing)
    • 1945 recordings with Dizzy Gillespie
  8. Dizzy Gillespie
    • Bebop Trumpet player
    • Played with Billy Eckstein Band ("Bebop School")
    • He put a band together that played latin jazz
    • "Cubano Be", "Cubano Bop", "Manteca",
    • Chano Pozó played with him (Cuban percussionist)
  9. Bud Powell
    • Bebop pianist and composer
    • Member of the Cootie Williams Band
    • His method of left hand comping and right hand bebop melodies influenced all jazz pianists of the 1940s and after (most imitated bebop pianist)
  10. Kenny Clarke
    • Bebop Drummer
    • Moved beat from the bass drum to the ride cymbal achieving a lighter texture
    • Used the bass drum for intermittent "punches" (called "dropping bombs")
    • Played in the house band at Minton's Playhouse
  11. Thelonious Monk
    • Bebop pianist
    • Played in house band at Minton's Playhouse
    • Hired first by Coleman Hawkins for recordings
    • Unique player with emphasis on dissonance in both his melodic improvisations and his approach to comping.
  12. How Bebop is Different Than Swing
    • Bebop used small group format
    • Improvised solo was very important
    • Tempos are faster
    • Clarinet used infrequently
    • Average level of proficiency was higher
    • Less emphasis on arrangements
    • Melodies and harmonies are more complex
  13. Minton's Playhouse
    This is where bebop was born
  14. Contrafaction
    Original melodies of standard popular songs were replaced with angular bebop melodies while the original chord progressions were retained
  15. Change in Rhythm Section playing with Bebop
    • Bass was the primary time keeper and they were expected to be competent soloists.
    • Drums had lighter texture (bass drum "bombs")
    • Pianists used Count Basie's style of comping
  16. Cool Jazz Characteristics
    • Little or no vibrato is used
    • Each instrument represents a different tone color
    • Works are highly arranged
    • Players tend to play in the middle register
    • Smoother, more melodic improvisations than in bebop
    • More laid back, relaxed feeling than bebop
  17. Birth of the Cool
    • Recordings done with Miles Davis nonet from 1948 to 1950
    • These were done after Miles Davis left Charlie Parker in 1949
  18. Changes in Rhythm Section playing in Cool Jazz
    • Advanced harmonies
    • Drummer's role is reduced
  19. Miles Davis
    • Important Cool Jazz trumpet player
    • Recorded "Birth of the Cool"
    • Had very nonaggressive sound
  20. Gerry Mulligan
    • Baritone saxophonist, composer, and arranger
    • Worked on the Birth of the Cool sessions
    • Played in Quarted with Chet Baker
  21. John Lewis and the MJQ
    • Began as rhythm section of late 1940s Dizzy Gillespie Big Band
    • Consisted of John Lewis (pianist/composer), Kenny Clarke (drummer), Ray Brown (bassist), and Milt Jackson (vibraphonist)
  22. Paul Desmond
    • Cool Jazz alto saxophonist
    • He had a mellow tone and frequent understated improvisations
    • Wrote "Take Five"
    • Played with Dave Brubeck Quartet
  23. Dave Brubeck
    • Cool Jazz pianist
    • Had quartet with Paul Desmond
    • He uses more reliant block chord voicings, which sometimes has dense quality and can be heavy handed
  24. Lennie Tristano
    • Cool Jazz pianist, composer, leader, and teacher
    • Create alternative style to Bebop
    • Influenced by Art Tatum and Lester Young
  25. Lee Konitz
    • Cool Jazz alto saxophonist
    • His sound was more reminiscent of Lester Young
    • He played on top of the beat, with less syncopation
  26. Hard Bop Characteristics
    • Elements of gospel music and blues
    • Early 1950s R&B influence
    • Hard driving rhythmic feel
    • Simpler melodies
    • Small group arranging important for melody presentation
    • More challenging chord progressions and forms
    • Slower tempo than bebop
    • Latin influence sometimes present
  27. Typical instrumentation of Hard Bop
    • Tenor Sax
    • Trumpet
    • Bass
    • Drums
    • Piano
  28. Art Blakey
    • Important hard bop drummer
    • He incorporated African drumming concepts in his approach to playing jazz
    • Formed the Jazz Messengers with Horace Silver, Hank Mobley and Kenny Dorham
  29. Horace Silver
    • Hard bop pianist and composer
    • Formed a quintet in 1956
    • As a funk style pianist, his playing is very rhythmic and bluesy
    • Wrote "The Preacher" and "Song for my Father"
  30. Clifford Brown
    • Hard bop trumpet player and composer
    • After playing with Art Blakey, he formed a quintet with Max Roach
  31. Max Roach
    • Hard bop drummer
    • Formed quintet with Clifford Brown
  32. Cannonball Adderly
    • Hard bop alto saxophonist
    • Had funky style like Horace Silver
    • Had quintet with Nat Adderly (cornet), Bobby Timmons (piano), Louis Hayes (drums), Sam Jones (bass)
    • Performed live in San Francisco's jazz workshop
  33. Wes Montgomery
    • Hard bop guitarist
    • Used his thumb for mellow sound
    • Voiced guitar melodies in octaves
  34. Miles Davis's style characteristics
    • Skillful timing and dramatic construction of line
    • Used silence in his solos
    • Used the harmon mute
    • His flugelhorn playing
    • Used little or no vibrato, characteristic of the cool style
    • Played in middle register
  35. Miles Davis's Roots
    • Born in Illinois and grew up in East St. Louis
    • Began playing trumpet at age 13
    • Filled in for Dizzy Gillespie and played with Charlie Parker
  36. Miles Davis's collaboration with Gil Evans
    • They produced four albums of music arranged by Evans for an expanded jazz orchestra
    • The orchestra featured Miles as a trumpet soloist
  37. Kind of Blue
    This Miles Davis album introduced modal jazz
  38. Modal Jazz
    This style opened a door for all jazz musicians to take a new approach to jazz improv and composition
  39. John Coltrane
    • Tenor and soprano saxophonist
    • Played in Miles Davis Quintet
    • Used modal improvisation
    • New rhythm section concepts (pedal point in bass)
    • Model for tone color and rhythmic conception on sax
    • System for juxtaposing/superimposing distantly related chords
    • Made "sheets of sound" (played extremely complex subdivisions of rhythm)
  40. John Coltrane Quartet
    • Formed after Coltrane left Miles Davis
    • Elvin Jones (drums- intense sound, use of polyrhythms)
    • McCoy Tyner (piano- modal comping and soloing, quartal piano voicings)
    • Jimmy Garrison or Reggie Workman (bass)
Card Set
Jazz History 2
Jazz History Test 2