auditory skill level (not definitive- overlap in skills)
- awareness (detect presence/absence of sound): child must learn to pay attention to sound & to respond when sound is present. Detection capacity is determined by the integrity of the peripheral auditory system (detection performance may be poorer than detection capacity) Ex: peek-a-boo, noise makers, musical chairs
- discrimination (differentiate same/diff or pattern perception): pattern perception- discrimination based on number of syllables. Discrimination capacity is determined by the integrity of the cochlea. Ex: animal sounds, same/diff games.
- identification (label some auditory info & suprasegmentals): involves suprasegmentals (prosodic elements) & segmentals (individual speech elements.) identification capacity is determined by the neural system. Ex: labeling body parts, animals, colors; play Candyland & listen to the name of colors; play Go Fish & listen for the numbers.
- comprehension (understanding of spoken lang): following oral directions, answering questions about a story, giving the opposite of a word, communicating appropriately. Comprehension necessitates the skills of auditory memory & sequencing. Ex: I Spy, stories, songs.
- analytic training: focuses on segments of speech (phonemes & syllables); emphasizes recognition of acoustic cues; bottom up- building blocks of speech sounds (% correct phonemes/words
- Vowels: more intensity in lower freq, thus more audible to most; vowels formants
- Consonants: focus on place, manner, & voicing.
- Objectives: goal (desired outcome); objective (measured outcome); establishment sound awareness; discrimination of suprasegmental aspects (stress, tone, intonation, length); recognition of vowels & consonants.
- synthetic training: recognizes meaning of whole message (may not comprehend all isolated sounds); top down- higher order processing (% correct sentences). Individuals learn to recognize the meaning of an utterance even if they don’t recognize every word (sentence comprehension in story format.) discriminate b/w a declarative & interrogative sentence (how are you; you are fine;) will carry on a conversation; can follow the instructions of simple commands.
- Objectives: awareness of suprasegmentals, discrimination of suprasegmentals, identification of syllable number, progression from single-word to multi-word utterances, closed-set comprehension activities, open-set comprehension activities.
- formal training: structured individual or group; usually 1-on-1. Guidelines- training stimuli should become more challenging over time; a variety of talkers should speak training items; many training items should be presented during a relatively short period of time; non-speech stimuli should only be used with young students for a short period of time or prelingual CI adults.
- informal training: incorporated into everyday situations (daily routines.) fostering listening skills within the context of meaningful communication (especially appropriate for babies & young children;) methods to consider- minimize background noise in home; use lang & speech that is repetitive, melodic, expressive & rhythmic.
- vary set size: closed set (person knows the stimuli prior to activity. Ex numbers, colors); limited (defined by context cues. Ex holidays, sports, farm animals); open (person not familiar with stimuli prior to activity (sentence tests not previously used for training)
- vary stimulus unit: words, phrases, sentences
- vary stimulus similarity: begin with acoustically dissimilar stimuli & work towards acoustically similar stimuli. Dissimilar (easier)- hi vs good morning. Similar- good morning vs good evening.
- Vary amount of stimulus context: stimuli high in environmental or linguistic context easier to recognize. Low context- nonsense sentences & words. High context- the big bad wolf huffed & puffed after reading the 3 little pigs.
- Vary stimuli by using structured vs spontaneous tasks: drills vs milieu learning. Structured- card matching & labeling. Spontaneous- spontaneous conversation while person is engaged in an unrelated activity.
- Vary the listening environment: ex- speech-in-noise tests with varying SNRs. (15, 10, 5dB)
design principles of auditory training
- auditory skill level
- stimuli units
- activity type
- difficulty level
how are different levels of auditory skills assessed?
awareness, discrimination, identification, comprehension
Easiest vowel & consonant sounds to distinguish auditorally vs visually
Consonants: easiest- voicing cues, manner cues. Difficulty- place features
uses a moderately loud conversational level; is characterize by precise but not exaggerated articulation; pauses at appropriate linguistic boundaries; uses a somewhat slow speaking rate.
varying difficulty levels of training activities
Easier/harder: closed/open stimulus set; words/sentences stimulus unit; not/very stimulus similarity; high/low context; structured/spontaneous task; good/poor S/N ratio.
computer aided AR
Learning & comm. Enhancement (LACE) results in improved performance on listening tasks.
lipreading vs speechreading
- Lipreading: person relies on only the visual signal provided by the talker’s face for speech recognition
- Speechreading: person relies on both visual & auditory cues provided by a talker for speech recognition (also includes other cues such as expressions, gestures, context.)
consonants & vowels & speechreading
- consonants more visible: bilabial closure (p, b, m); fricative (f, v); labiodental (th)
- consonants least visible: inside mouth (k, g, t, n)
- vowels not highly visible. May or may not be distinguished by spread of lips, tongue/jaw height, lip rounding.
Visemes & homophones
- Visemes: groups of speech sounds that appear identical on the lips
- Homophones: words that look identical on the mouth; may vary.
neighborhood activation model
- Spoken words activate internal lexical candidates (lexical neighborhood); one of the members of the neighborhood matches/completes the incoming stimulus; acoustic lexical neighborhood (comprised of words that sound alike with the exception of a single phoneme)
- Auditory only: top-down processing- members of neighborhood are activated with onset of spoken word & candidates are eliminated as word unfolds until only 1 candidate remains.
- Visual lexical neighborhoods: groups of words that look alike on the face & have approx the same freq of occurance.
speechreading training objectives
- Analytic & synthetic training objectives.
- Computerized: computer assisted speech training (CAST)- for CI, mainly children. Sound & way beyond (cochlear corp)
- Efficacy: difficult to compare; many studies report training improves performance, but not all; many report marginal or no improvement; reported results often inconclusive or present contradictory findings; some show practice effects.
talker, message, environment, person with hearing loss
Instructional strategies: people with hearing loss use to influence comm. partner’s speaking behaviors; a person asks a talker to change the delivery of the message. Person with HL must ID behaviors that impede their speech understanding, & be able to instruct comm. partner how to change the behavior.
- Message-tailoring strategies: influence the way someone constructs a message; a way of phrasing one’s remarks to constrain the response of a comm. Partner; how to best say something in order to get the desired response.
- Acknowledgment gesture: made in response to a remark from a comm. Partner who is familiar with that sort of signaling; could be a nod or head shake; can lead to bluffing.
Constructive strategy: tactic designed for optimizing listening environment for comm.
person with hearing loss (strategies that influence the reception of a message)
- Adaptive strategies: methods of counteracting maladaptive behaviors that stem from HL. Ex: every time you bluff, put a dollar in jar; social withdrawal- meditation; ask others to repeat.
- Anticipatory strategies: methods of preparing for a comm. interaction. Ex: go to new restaurant, expect noisy background & you get mad when you cant hear what the server is saying- look up menu online before hand.
- Maladaptive strategies: inappropriate behavioral mechanism for coping with the conversation difficulties caused by HL. Sometimes yield short-term benefits, but have long term costs. Bluffing, social withdrawal, dominating conversations, anger, hostility, self-pity.
repair strategies (tactics implemented by participation in conversation to rectify a comm breakdown)
- Specific: provide explicit instructions to comm. partner about how to repair conversation breakdown.
- Non-specific: indicate lack of understanding
receptive vs expressive repair strategies
- Receptive: utilized when recipient of message does not understand the meaning (specific or nonspecific)
- Expressive: used when talker (person w/HL) sends an unintelligible message & comm. partner cannot understand it; often children & prelingually deafened.
Be able to identify different stages and courses of action in communication breakdown including repairs (i.e., topic shading, non-specific repair, rephrasing, verbatim repetition etc.)
- Passive: person tends to withdraw from conversations & social interactions rather than attempt to repair conversations. Tend to bluff, speak with quiet tone, use little eye contact.
- Aggressive: protect their rights at expense of others; need to win the conversation. Tend to blame others for misunderstandings; display hostility; shouting/soapbox speech; excessive body gestures; intimidating- inappropriate body gesture, eye contact.
- Passive-aggressive: aggression is expressed in indirect ways. Tend to use sarcasm, behave passively face-to-face then aggressively behind one’s back; exhibit sullenness, stubbornness, procrastination
- Assertive: takes responsibility for managing comm. difficulties in a way that is considerate of comm. partners. Tend to be respectful, use appropriate eye contact/body lang, acknowledge comm. partner’s efforts to promote good comm.
mean length turn & MLT ratio
- MLT: average number of words spoken during set of conversational turns
- MLT ratio: add up number of words each talker says. Divide by number of turns. Divide by the two talkers.
self efficacy & 4 learning experiences
- Self efficacy: the confidence that one has for successfully performing a particular task, activity or challenge. How well person thinks they can manage difficult comm. situations.
- Mastery experience: direct experience in a successful comm. interaction
- Vicarious experience: person sees other people with HL succeed
- Verbal persuasion: clinician or AR professional tells they can succeed & gives tools to assist
- Emotional arousal: relaxation or breathing techniques to reduce stress
ComStrat training timeline
develop curriculum, gather materials, set ground rules
individuals are provided with info about various types of comm strategies & appropriate listening & speaking behaviors. Try to involve group discussion opportunities to avoid boredom.
attendees use comm. strategies in controlled, structured setting. Can consist of modeling, role play, analysis of scenarios, computer-based interactions, continuous discourse tracking
real world practice
individuals perform new comm. strategy, skill, behavior in an everyday environment. Includes activities that have previously been performed with success in the classroom; require them to comm. & interact in a highly motivating setting.
short term ComStrats training (not always feasible to complete an extended program)
- Materials approach: providing printed & recorded materials
- Short tutorial: do not always result in significant changes in comm. strategies/ conversational fluency, comm. in general
ComStrat training for children & family members
Children: older children can benefit from comm. strategies training; can use formal instruction, real world learning, or combo of both. Training should focus on effective listening behaviors; teach kids how to ask for clarity if they did not understand or hear a message; teach kids other ways to comm. if they cannot verbalize what they want to say, or is what they are verbalizing is not understood. Begin with formal instruction/ guided learning then transfer to real world training.