1. Match the correct PSP effect with each ion channel action.
    entry of a negative ion; hyperpolarization
  2. Which of the following cells are important for the removal of nerve cell debris?
  3. The major symptom experienced by Katharyn D. in the chapter prologue was
    excessive tiredness.
  4. Neuronal signals are carried across the synapse by
  5. A synapse can involve a junction between an axon terminal and a(n) ________. (not dendrite or axon)
  6. Which of the following is true of ion distribution across the axon membrane?
    Sodium ions are concentrated outside the axon membrane.
  7. The specialized pores located in the axon membrane that open or close are termed
    ion channels.
  8. Subthreshold depolarizations of the axon membrane
  9. ________ are positively charged particles.
  10. In a resting nerve cell, which of the forces listed below will act to push sodium ions into the cell? (not diffusion)
  11. Activation of cells within the area postrema would be predicted to produce
    feelings of nausea and vomiting.
  12. The ________ is defined as the difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of the axon membrane.
    membrane potential
  13. Neuromodulators are?
    secreted from neurons, but dispersed widely in brain.
  14. The ________ contain(s) the nerve cell nucleus and functions to ______.
    soma; provide for the life processes of the cell
  15. Cation is to anion as
    positive is to negative.
  16. The ________ neuron is the most common nerve cell type in the central nervous system. (not multiglial)
  17. Movement of the axon membrane potential from -90 mV to -80 mV would be termed a(n)
  18. In which portion of a neuron would you expect to find the largest number of vesicles?
    the release zone
  19. Which of the following is true of an action potential?
    a. an action potential requires 5 msec for completion
    b. the potassium channels are opened at a lower voltage than are sodium channels (not this)
    c. the sodium channels are opened at a lower voltage than are potassium channels
    d. the overshoot is due to a prolonged change in sodium conductance
    e. during an action potential, the interior becomes even more negative (not this)
  20. A key advantage of saltatory conduction is that
    myelin speeds up the velocity at which an axon can conduct an action potential.
  21. An autoreceptor is located on the ________ and is sensitive to ________.
    presynaptic membrane; the transmitter released by that neuron
  22. Which of the following glial cells are important for the supply of energy for neurons?
  23. The force of ________ moves sodium ions ________ the axon
    diffusion; into
  24. The "all-or-none law" refers to the observation that an action potential
  25. Astrocytes perform which of the following functions?
    (all of the above, so just note in everything they do)
  26. Most ________ are secreted into the extracellular fluid from endocrine glands or tissues.
  27. hormones
  28. Movement of the axon membrane potential from -70 mV to -90 mV would be termed a(n)
  29. Ions enter and leave the membrane of a myelinated axon at the
  30. The ________ cells are the most important support cells of the central nervous system.
  31. The membrane voltage level at which an action potential is triggered is termed the
    threshold of excitation.
  32. The force of diffusion would tend to move ________ ions ________ the axon.
    sodium; into
  33. An impaired ability to sense temperature and touch might be expected after damage to which type of nerve cell?
  34. Sensory stimuli that vary in intensity are coded by variations in the ________ of a neuron.
    firing rate
  35. An electrical charge applied to an axon that moves the membrane potential from -70 mV to -45 mV will result in a(n)
    action potential.
  36. The presence of a barrier between the blood stream and the brain is suggested by the observation that
    injection of dye into the bloodstream stains all cells but those of the brain and spinal cord.
  37. ________ are charged particles formed when certain molecules dissolves in water.
  38. Which of the following is correct regarding neurons?
    The number of neurons in the human nervous system is estimated at more than 100 billion.
  39. The physical gap between two nerve cells across which messages are transmitted is the
  40. ________ neurons gather information from the environment related to light, odors, and bodily contact with objects.
  41. The process which terminates the postsynaptic potentials induced by most neurotransmitters is
    reuptake of the molecule into the axon terminal.
  42. ________ are negatively charged particles.
  43. The process of phagocytosis involves
    the removal of neuronal debris.
  44. ________ neurons function to contract muscles.
  45. Match up the receptor type with its action.
    (metabotropic or ionotropic)
  46. Which  cells are important for the immune system reaction to brain damage?
  47. A key event for the release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic membrane is the
    arrival of an action potential at the axon terminal.
  48. The term ________ means "little bladder."
  49. The process by which molecules are evenly distributed throughout a medium is
  50. Which of the following is true regarding the action potential (AP)? (all of the above)
  51. The process by which similarly charged particles repel each other and are thus distributed throughout a medium is termed
    electrostatic pressure.
  52. Neurotransmitter molecules are secreted from a(n) ________ in response to the arrival of an action potential.
    axon terminal
  53. Match up the receptor type with its action.
    ionotropic; direct opening of an ion channel
  54. What will produce an EPSP?
  55. The ________ is comprised of the brain and spinal cord.
    central nervous system
  56. The recipes for generating individual proteins are contained within the
  57. Which of the following represents the normal order of activation in neuronal transmission?
  58. Saltatory conduction is rapid because
  59. The interior of a neuron at rest
    is negatively charged relative to the outside.
  60. Which of the following is a consequence of the activity of the sodium-potassium transporters?
  61. Which of the following is true of neurotransmitter function?
    Neurotransmitters open ion channels in the postsynaptic membrane.
  62. A drug that inactivates AChE would be expected to? (it does not impair the synthesis of ACh.)
  63. Which of the following events restores the membrane potential from the peak of the action potential back to the resting level?
  64. The common structures or regions that form a neuron include the?
    a. axon
    b. cell body.
    all of the above
  65. The ________ system is comprised of the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord.
    peripheral nervous
  66. Which of the following will reliably produce an IPSP regardless of the current level of the membrane potential?
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