DBB - Exam 2 - Drug Abuse

  1. Pure Food and Drug Act
    • Enacted in 1906
    • Regulated labeling of patent medicines and created the FDA
  2. Harrison Act
    • Enacted in 1914
    • Regulated dispensing and use of opioid drugs and cocaine
  3. 18th Constitutional Amendment
    • Enacted in 1920
    • Prohibition; banned alcohol sales except for medicinal use
    • Repealed in 1933
  4. Marijuana Tax Act
    • Enacted in 1937
    • Banned nonmedical use of cannabis
    • Overturned by Supreme Court in 1969
  5. Controlled Substances Act
    • Enacted in 1970
    • Established the schedule of controlled substances and created the DEA
  6. Schedule of controlled substances
    • Established as part of the Controlled Substances Act of 1970
    • Five schedules of controlled substances
    • Schedule I cannot be prescribed at all (heroin, LSD, marijuana)
    • Schedule II-V can be prescribed 
  7. Substance abuse
    • One or more of the following:
    • Role impairment
    • Hazardous use
    • Legal issues
    • Social issues
  8. Substance dependence
    • 3 or more of the following:
    • Tolerance
    • Withdrawal
    • Larger amounts over longer periods of time
    • Desire to quit/cut down
    • Great deal of time spent related to the substance
    • Reduced social, occupational, or recreational activities
    • Continued use despite major health problems
  9. Tolerance
    Needing more of the drug to get the same effect
  10. Withdrawal
    When you stop or cut down drug use, significant physical and psychological symptoms
  11. More severe: substance abuse or substance dependence?
  12. Two Disease Models of Addiction
    • Susceptibility models: Initial drug use + inherited susceptibility to uncontrolled drug use --> repeated drug use --> loss of control
    • Exposure models: Initial drug use --> repeated drug use --> altered brain function --> loss of control
  13. 4 models of drug addiction: physical dependence model, positive reinforcement model, incentive-sensitization model, opponent-process model
    • Physical dependence model: focus on withdrawal symtpoms
    • Positive reinforcement model: focus on rewarding properties of drugs/craving; rat experiments where they keep self-administering drugs
    • Incentive-sensitization model: focus on distinction between "wanting" (incentive salience) and "liking" (euphoria)
    • Opponent-process model: who cares
  14. Nutt studies
    • Harm to self: Heroin most dangerous, then cocaine, alcohol pretty high
    • Harm to self + Harm to others: Alcohol most dangerous
  15. Homeostasis vs. Allostasis
    • Homeostasis: normal set point, equilibrium, etc...
    • Allostasis: when you become addicted, you shift to allostasis; changing set point, compromised equilibrium, etc...
  16. Panskepp's SEEKING system
    • Includes the dopaminergic central reward system (pleasure)
    • Also includes curiosity and motivation
  17. Three Components of Addiction
    • Binge/Intoxication
    • Withdrawal/Negative Affect
    • Preoccupation/Anticipation/Craving
  18. HPA Axis, Cortisol, and Drugs
    When you don't have the drug, it leads to release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal gland, which leads to stress
Card Set
DBB - Exam 2 - Drug Abuse