Nutrition Test 2

  1. Carbohydrates
    • compounds made of single sugars or multiple sugars and
    • composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. 
  2. 1 gram of carbohydrates yields how many calories?
    4 calories 
  3. We need a minimum of ______of carbohydrates daily to
    provide adequate glucose for your brain 
    130 grams
  4. ______are the preferred fuel for the brain and nervous system ?
  5. Carbohydrates primary role is to provide the ____ with energy
    (calories) mainly in the form of _____to your cells. 
    Body; Glucose 
  6. Glucose 
    • – the building block of carbohydrates, a single sugar used in both plant
    • and animal tissue as quick energy. A single sugar is known as a monosaccharide 
  7. Where do the carbohydrates we eat come from?
    • Mostly plants
    • from only animal derived food: milk and milk produces 
  8. Carbohydrates are divided into 2 categories:
    Simple and complex 
  9. Simple carbohydrates 
    the single surgars (monsaccharides) and the pair of sugars (disaccharides) linked together 
  10. Complex carbohydrates 
    long chains of sugar (glucose) arranged as starch or fiber also called polysaccherides 
  11. In what foods do we get simple carbohydrates?
    • found natrually in fruites, some vegetables, and milk and milk products (there are more nutrient dense foods and are healthier 
    • found as added sugars in sweets and processed food (added sugar)
  12. Added sugar
    • Sugars and other caloric sweetner  that are added to foods during processing or preparation Adding sugar do not include naturally occurring sugar such
    • as those found in milk and fruit. 
  13. Empty calorie foods 
    • a phrase used to indicate that food supplies calories but negligible
    • nutrients 
  14. Complex carbohydrates two groups
    Starch  and fiber ( both found in plants)
  15. Starches 
    A plant polysaccharide composed of hundred of glucose molecules, digestible by human being 
  16. Added sugars typically have more _____ and less _____ dense foods and are less healthy. considered to be empty calories food 
    Calories; nutrients 
  17. Refined Grain
    • Grains that have been milled to remove the chaff, bran and germ from the grain - leaving only the endosperm - in order to yield a finer texture and improved shelf life. 
    • removes nutrients
    • Enriched and Fortified   
    • Examples:  White Bread, White Rice,
    • Regular Pasta
  18. Enriched
    refers to the process by which the B vitamins thamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, and the mineral iron are added to refined grains and grain procducts at level specified by law
  19. Fortified 
    term for food to which nutrients have been added.
  20. Whole Grains
    refers to a grain that is milled in its entirety (all but husk), not refined. 
  21. Whole grain
    • Retains nutirents 
    • potential disease - fighting allies in your diet
    • examples - whole wheat bread, brown rice. 
  22. Fiber
    the indigestible of food, composed mostly of polysaccharides. the best known of fiber are cellulose, hemicellulose, penctin, and gums.
  23. Dietary Fibers found natually in?
    Plant foods
  24. Funtional Fiber
    added to foods for a beneficial effect 
  25. Total Fiber
    dietary fiber and funtional fibers we eat in our diet
  26. Two types of Fiber
    Soluble and insoluble 
  27. Insoluble Fiber
    Includes the fiber type called cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Insoluble fibers do not disslove in water. 
  28. Soluble Fiber
    includes the fiber types called pectin, gums, mucilages, some hemicelluloses, and algal substance ( for example carrageenan) soluble fibers either dissolve or swell when placed in warer 
  29. DRI recommended total fiber/day.
    14 grams for every 1000 calories you eat 
  30. Glycemic Effect 
    the effect of food on a person's blood glucose and insulin resonse; how fast how high the blood glucose rises and how quickly the body responds by bringing it back to normal
  31. Glycemic index
    a ranking of foods based on their potenial to raise blood glucose level
Card Set
Nutrition Test 2
Nutrition notes