1. Operation Bootstrap
    1947, Puerto Ricans, An effort from the government to deal with their poverty,"Self Help" Metaphor, Encouraging people to move to puerto rico by offering tax incentives, cheap and abundant labor force, Brings American capitol to Puerto Rico, Industries developed-
  2. Foraker Law
    • - US territory but not part of the federation.·         
    • - Congress held sovereignty.·         
    • - US Pres. named governor and top administrators.·         - - US controlled trade, treaties, postal service, public health, and defense.·         
    • - PR represented by one, non-voting delegate in US Congress.1900
  3. Insular Cases
    In 1901 and 1903 these Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag. The newly acquired islands of Puerto Rico and the Philippines would not have all the rights of American Citizens
  4. Young Lords Party
    • 1970s
    • - Puerto Rican nationalist
    • group
    • - founded by Juan
    • Gonzalez
    • - rejected integrationist
    • strategy
    • - desired to be liberated
    • from American shackles
    • - created a strong ethnic
    • identity
    • - NYC and Chicago
  5. Spanish-American War
    was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, effectively the result of American intervention in the ongoing Cuban War of Independence. American attacks on Spain's Pacific possessions led to involvement in the Philippine Revolution and ultimately to the Philippine-American War.
  6. Jones Act
    Declared all Puerto Ricans citizens unless they formally rejected their status
  7. Manifest Destiny
    Doctrine, first expressed in 1845, that the expansion of white Americans across the continent was inevitable and ordained by God.
  8. Monroe Doctrine
    a policy of the United States introduced on December 2, 1823. It stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention
  9. Downes v.  Bidwell
    1901. The Supreme Court ruled that Puerto Rico was an "unincorporated territory" which was "unfit" for statehood so the island could be held indefinitely as a colony. 1917- Congress extended US citizenship to Puerto Ricans. 1998- Senate defeated a bill which would have allowed Puerto Ricans to a chance to determine their status- remain a commonwealth, become the 51st state, or become independent
  10. Commonwealth-
    • - PR organized but unincorporated dependent territory
    • - US territory but not part of the federation.
    • - Congress held sovereignty.
    • - US Pres. named governor and top administrators.
    • - US controlled trade, treaties, postal service, public health, and defense.
    • - PR represented by one, non-voting delegate in US Congress
  11. Nuyorican Avant Garde
    • Nuyorrican artistic scene —1960s, 70s ·        
    • - Taller Boricua: Fernando Salicrup, Juan Sánchez, Nitza Tufiño, et al. —
    • - Performance Art. —       
    • - Poetry/Spoken Word
    • - Pedro Pietri
    • - Cultural end to political movement
    • - Nuyorrican Poets Café (Lower East Side/Loisaida)
  12. Taller Boricua
    • Established in 1970 in East Harlem as a non-profit arts organization
    • • Part of the Nuroriacan Avant Garde of the 60's/70's
    • • Performance Art. —(recited)
    • • Poetry/Spoken Word (recited)
    • • part of Nyorican Avant Garde
  13. 65th Infantry (Division, Regiment)
    Puerto rican infantry who fought for the US in WWII
  14. El Barrio
    • North Eastern part of Harlem
    • • Borough of Manhattan
    • • also known Upper East Side
    • • Spanish Harlem
  15. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.
    1929–1932:  Governor of Puerto Rico
  16. Vito Marcantonio
    • • Member of House of Representative from NYC
    • • district was centered in East Harlem,
    • • residents of Italian and Puerto Rican origin
    • • Fluent in Spanish as well as Italian,
    • • ally of the Puerto Rican community
  17. Mariel Boatlift
    • this controversial 1980s mass movement of Latino immigrants to the US brought social undesirables at a time of rising unemployment 
    • • 1980: Left from Mariel Harbor
    • • Caused by stagnant Cuban Economy
    • • Supported by Cuban-American citizens/organization and Castro
    • • Cubans seek political asylum in U.S./ Peruvian Embassy
    • • 17% previously in jail and mental health facilities
    • • More working class
    • • racial diversity
    • • more economic refugees
    • • 125k reach U.S.
  18. Cuban Adjustment Act
    • 1966. enacted during the 2 nd wave, any Cuban that was already in the US cold stay for ever regardless of how they entered, if illegal would be pardoned, many packed up by boatlift from Miami and US sent airplanes and Fidel allowed them to leave…group was not elite but still professionals and next in line after golden exiles, these educated people that had connections with the first wave in terms of job interest and so on
    • • 1966:
    • • Access to Medicare
    • • Student loans
    • • Expedited residency
    • • Political asylum
    • • Small business loans
    • • CIA support and recruitment
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