Adams - 84, Crawford - 41, Clay - 37. House vote: Adams - 13, Jackson -
7, Crawford - 4, Clay - dropped. Jackson did not have a majority in
the electoral vote, so the election went to the House of
Representatives, where Adams won.
The charge make by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John
Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of
Secretary of State. Clay knew he could not win, so he traded his votes
for an office.
404. Tariff of Abominations
405. Vice-President Calhoun
406. Jacksonian Revolution of 1828
407. Age of the Common Man
408. Jacksonian Democracy: characteristics
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported
manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the
South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and
unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. It passed because
New England favored high tariffs.
: South Carolina Exposition and protest,
Vice-President Calhoun anonymously published the essay South Carolina
Exposition, which proposed that each state in the union counter the
tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an
unconstitutional act of Congress. It was written in reaction to the
Tariff of 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped
the South of its rights. South Carolina had threatened to secede if the
tariff was not revoked; Calhoun suggested state nullification as a more
When Andrew Jackson was elected president from humble beginnings, people
thought he could make the American Dream come true. Jackson appointed
common people to government positions. Jefferson's emphasis on farmers’
welfare gave way to Jackson's appeal to city workers, small
businessmen, and farmers. Jackson was the first non-aristocrat to be
elected president. Jackson's election was the revolution of the "Common
Jackson's presidency was the called the Age of the Common Man. He felt
that government should be run by common people - a democracy based on
self-sufficient middle class with ideas formed by liberal education and a
free press. All white men could now vote, and the increased voting
rights allowed Jackson to be elected.
The Jacksonian era (1829-1841) included many reforms: free public
schools, more women's rights, better working conditions in factories,
and the rise of the Abolition movement. In the election, Jackson was
portrayed as a common man and his opponent, J.Q. Adams, was attacked for
his aristocratic principles. Electors in the electorial college were
also chosen by popular vote. Common man, nationalism, National
413. Cherokee Indian removal, "Trail of Tears"
414. Worchester v. Georgia; Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Worchester v. Georgia: 1832
415. Whigs: origins, policies
A minority of the Cherokee tribe, despite the protest of the majority,
had surrendered their Georgia land in the 1835 Treaty of New Echota.
During the winter of 1838 - 1839, troops under General Winfield Scott
evicted them from their homes in Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma
Indian country. Many died on the trail; the journey became known as the
"Trail of Tears".
- The Supreme Court decided
Georgia had no jurisdiction over Cherokee reservations. Georgia refused
to enforce decision and President Jackson didn't support the Court. Cherokee
Nation v. Georgia: 1831 - The Supreme Court ruled that
Indians weren't independent nations but dependent domestic nations which
could be regulated by the federal government. From then until 1871,
treaties were formalities with the terms dictated by the federal
Whigs were conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation
owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was
once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British
political party that had opposed King George during the American
Revolution. Among the Whigs were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and, for a
while, Calhoun. Their policies included support of industry,
protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally
upper class in origin.
417. Election of 1832, Anti-Masonic Party
418. Clay, Bank Recharter Bill, Nicholas Biddle
Andrew Jackson (Democrat) ran for re-election with V.P. Martin Van
Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the U.S. Bank,
which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was pro-Bank, ran
against him The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was
the first election with a national nominating convention. Jackson won -
219 to Clay's 49 and Wirt's 1. The Masons were a semi-secret society
devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or upper-class
men of the Revolutionary War era belonged. The Anti-Masons sprang up as
a reaction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party
took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election.
The Bank of the United States was chartered by Congress in 1791; it held
government funds and was also commercial. It wasn't rechartered in
1811, but a second bank was established in 1816 (1/5 government owned).
Jackson opposed it, saying it drove other banks out of business and
favored the rich, but Clay favored it. Nicholas Biddle became the
bank's president. He made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified
that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small
banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over
whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.
425. South opposes protective tariffs (Tariff of Abominations)
426. Nullification crisis, South Carolina Exposition and Protest
The North wanted tariffs that protected new industries, but the
agricultural Southern states depended on cheap imports of manufactured
goods and only wanted tariffs for revenue. The South strongly opposed
protective tariffs like the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832, and protested by
asserting that enforcement of the tariffs could be prohibited by
individual states, and by refusing to collect tariff duties.
When faced with the protective Tariff of 1828, John Calhoun presented a
theory in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) that federal
tariffs could be declared null and void by individual states and that
they could refuse to enforce them. South Carolina called a convention
in 1832, after the revised Tariff of 1828 became the Tariff of 1832, and
passed an ordinance forbidding collection of tariff duties in the
state. This was protested by Jackson.
428. Clay: Compromise Tariff of 1833
429. Force Bill
Henry Clay devised the Compromise Tariff of 1833 which gradually reduced
the rates levied under the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. It caused South
Carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the Tariffs of 1828 and
1832. Both protectionists and anti-protectionists accepted the
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and
navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South
Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null
and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The
Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same
day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South
Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
432. Specie Circular
1863 - The Specie Circular, issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836,
was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money
without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. The Circular
required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It
stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down
sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
437. Election of 1840: candidates, characteristics
438. Rise of the Second Party System
William Henry Harrison and V.P. John Tyler - Whig - 234 votes. Martin
Van Buren - Democrat - 60 votes. James G. Birney - Liberty Party - 0
votes. Panic of 1837 and a coming depression kept Van Buren from being
reelected. Whigs rejected Clay, nominated military hero Harrison with
the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler too". They depicted Van Buren as
living in luxury and Harrison as a "log cabin and hard cider" guy, which
wasn't entirely true.
Since the 1840's, two major political parties have managed to eliminated
all competition. Democrats and Republicans have controlled nearly all
government systems since the 1840's.
440. Tariff of 1842
A protective tariff signed by President John Tyler, it raised the
general level of duties to about where they had been before the
Compromise Tariff of 1833. Also banned pornography by increasing its
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's,
in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and
there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that
mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part
of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the
invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and
freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
Believed in Transcendentalism, they included Emerson (who pioneered the
movement) and Thoreau. Many of them formed cooperative communities such
as Brook Farm and Fruitlands, in which they lived and farmed together
with the philosophy as their guide. "They sympathize with each other in
the hope that the future will not always be as the past." It was more
literary than practical - Brook Farm lasted only from 1841 to 1847.
A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann
Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers
through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
469. Dorothea Dix, treatment of the insane
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally
ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving
conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S.
and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume
responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the
Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
472. Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the
first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is
inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal.
Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of
479. Irish, German immigration
Irish: arriving in immense waves in the 1800's, they were extremely
poor peasants who later became the manpower for canal and railroad
construction. German: also came because of economic distress, German
immigration had a large impact on America, shaping many of its morals.
Both groups of immigrants were heavy drinkers and supplied the labor
force for the early industrial era.
492. Supreme Court: Marbury v. Madison
493. Supreme Court: Fletcher v. Peck
494. Supreme Court: Martin v. Hunters Lessee
495. Supreme Court: Darmouth College v. Woodward
496. Supreme Court: McCulloch v. Maryland
497. Supreme Court: Cohens v. Virginia
498. Supreme Court: Gibbons v. Ogden
499. Supreme Court: Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
500. Supreme Court: Worchester v. Georgia
1803 - The case arose out of Jefferson’s refusal to deliver the
commissions to the judges appointed by Adams’ Midnight Appointments.
One of the appointees, Marbury, sued the Sect. of State, Madison, to
obtain his commission. The Supreme Court held that Madison need not
deliver the commissions because the Congressional act that had created
the new judgships violated the judiciary provisions of the Constitution,
and was therefore unconstitutional and void. This case established the
Supreme Court's right to judicial review. Chief Justice John Marshall
1810 - A state had tried to revoke a land grant on the grounds that it
had been obtained by corruption. The Court ruled that a state cannot
arbitrarily interfere with a person’s property rights. Since the land
grant wass a legal contract, it could not be repealed, even if
corruption was involved.
1816 - This case upheld the right of the Supreme Court to review the
decisions of state courts.
1819 - This decision declared private corporation charters to be
contracts and immune form impairment by states' legislative action. It
freed corporations from the states which created them.
1819 - This decision upheld the power of Congress to charter a bank as a
government agency, and denied the state the power to tax that agency.
1821 - This case upheld the Supreme Court's jurisdiction to review a
state court's decision where the case involved breaking federal laws.
1824 - This case ruled that only the federal government has authority
over interstate commerce.
1831 - Supreme Court refused to hear a suit filed by the Cherokee Nation
against a Georgia law abolishing tribal legislature. Court said
Indians were not foreign nations, and U.S. had broad powers over tribes
but a responsibility for their welfare.
1832 - Expanded tribal authority by declaring tribes sovereign entities,
like states, with exclusive authority within their own boundaries.
President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling.
APUSH exam review
Andrew Jackson, Early 1800s social movements, Supreme Court cases