Autoimmunity can be defined as: (pick 2)
a. Restoration of mechanisms reponsible for self tolerance
b. Cure of bacterial infection
c. Breakdown of mechaisms repsonsible for self tolerance
d. induction of an immune response against components of the self.
a. Decreased Ab production
b. Increased Ab production
How does Autoimmunity affect the absolute number of T cells?
B. Decreases T cell count
Autoimmune disease can be classified. What are the 3.
Systemic, Organic Specific, Both(overlap)
Systemic autoimmune disease
Organ specific would be b.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
B. Affects many sites in the body
Systemic Lupus Erthematosus is associated to
C. Over reactive B cell response
The disease will produce Antinuclear Ab.
Antinuclear Ab will bind to cells all over the body.
Level of Ab production correlates with severity of symptoms.
C. Fluorescent anti-nuclear anitbody
Why do we use FANA?
Detection for Autoimmune disease such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
Know how the ANA titer is determined.
The last dilution which yields a positive result is the titer. (fluorescent)
Most specific SLE, and it correlates well with disease activity.
E. Double-stranded DNA antibodies
Second major antibody found in SLE
B. Antihistone Ab
Specific for LE, and it targets Sm proteins
E. Anti-Sm Antibody
Most common in patients with skin manifestations
a. Double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) antibodies
b. Antihistone antibodyc. Anti-Sm (smith) antibody
d. SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La Antibodies
e. Anti-nRNP antibody (nuclear ribonuclear protein)
Patients with SLE or mixed connective tissue disease.
FANA: Patterns of reactivity - Homogenous
Entire nucleus stained
FANA: Patterns of reactivity - Peripheral
Rim of nucleus stained
FANA: patterns of reactivity - Speckled
Spots of stain throughout nucleus
Anti- SM SLE
FANA: Patterns of reactivity - Nucleolar
Nucleolus only stained
Within Nucleoli of the HEP2 Cells. Suggestive of progressive systemic sclerosis
The presence of at least ___ out of 11 typical disease characteristics is required to be diagnosed with SLE.
Know basic structure of Nucleus and what's inside.
Nucleoplasm, Nucleolus, Linear Chromosomes, Nucleosomes, Histones, Ribonucleoprotein
True or false:
Screening for general ANA is first performed then Ab directed against specific components of nuclear material of cells.
IFA vs. EIA
IFA is gold stndard assay but it's harder to use.
EIA is widely used but can have false results.
Uses purified nuclear antigens or recominant Ag. Ag are placed in microtiter well for testing. Detection of auto-Ab in serum.
Named Sm prteins after patient. A family of RNA-binding proteins found in EVERY cell. Proteins with similar structures were discovered and named LSm proteins.