Sences and Perception

  1. Sensation
    Stimulation of the sences
  2. Perception
    Process of creating meaning from sensation
  3. Absolute threshold
    the smallest amount of energy needed for a person to consciously detect a stimulus 50% of the time it is present
  4. Absolute thresholds
    • Sight- a candle flame 30 miles on a clear dark night
    • Hearing- a tick of a watch 20ft away in a quiet room
    • Smell- one drop of perfume diffused in a 3 room apartment
    • Taste- one teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water
    • Touch-a bees wing falling on the cheek from 1 centi.
  5. Sensory Adaptation
    sensory systems reduced responsiveness to unchanging stimuli
  6. Motivation
    set of the factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior, usually toward some goal
  7. Cornea
    Protects eye and bends the incoming light waves for focus
  8. Pupil
    Opening where light comes in
  9. Lens
    Focuses incoming light rays into receptor cells in back surface of eyeball
  10. Retina
    An area at the back of the eye that contains rods and cones
  11. Rods
    Visual receptor cells in the retina that detects shades of gray and are responsible for periphreal vision ( black and white)
  12. Cones
    Visual receptor cells, concentrated near center of retina, responsible for color vision and fine detail (Sensitive in brightly lit conditions)
  13. Fovea
    Tiny pit in the center of the retina filled with cones; responsible for sharp vision
  14. Color blindenss
    • Red-green or blue-yellow= dichromats
    • Black and white= monochromats
  15. Blind spot
    Point of which the optic nerve leaves the eye; contains no receptors cells for vision
  16. Outer ear
    Eardrum-Funell sound waves to middle
  17. Middle ear
    Hammer, anvil, stirrup- concentrate eardrum vibrations to cochleas oval window
  18. Inner ear
    Cochlea- generate neural signals to the brain
  19. Auditory nerve
    Connection of axons that carry signals from each ear to the brain
  20. Loudness
  21. Pitch
  22. Olfactory Nerve
    Sense of smell
  23. Taste Qualities
    Sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and unami
  24. Smell Qualities
    Floral, musky, and rotten
  25. Pheromones
    Chemicals that affect behavior
  26. Gustation
    Sense of taste
  27. Skin senses
    • Pressure
    • Tempiture
    • Pain
  28. Vestibular system
    Sense of body movement, position and balance
  29. Kinesthesis
    Posture, orientation and movement of individual body parts
  30. Selective attention
    Filter out and attending only to important sensory messages
  31. Feature detectors
    Specialized neuron that respond to human like
  32. Habituation
    Brains reduced responsiveness to unchaning stimuli
  33. Gestalt
    • Whole is more important then parts of figures:
    • Closure
    • Continuity
    • Proximity
    • Similarity
  34. Closure
    Filling in a gaps to create a whole object
  35. Continuity
    Smooth continuous patterns
  36. Proximity
    Grouping nearby figures
  37. Similarity
    Grouping similar figures
  38. Simplicity
    Composed of simple parts
  39. Figure-Ground
    • Figure-Entity percieved to stand apart from background
    • Ground-Background against which figure appears
  40. Perceptual Constancy
    • Size
    • Shape
    • Brightness
    • Color
  41. Expectations
    Preconception influence perception
  42. Cognitive style
    Own general method of dealing with the environment
  43. Cultural background
    Influence peoples perception
  44. Monocular cues
    Visual cues requiring the use of one eye
  45. Superposition
    One object partly blocks a second, first closer second further
  46. Aerial perspective
    Distant objects have hazy appearence and somewhat blurred outline
  47. Linear perspective
    Monocular cue to distance and deph based on the fact that 2 parallel lines seem to come together at the horizon
  48. Elevation
    Another perspective cue to deph (higher=farther)
  49. Texture gradient
    Object that is close is rough or detailed
  50. Shadowing
    Cue to distance, depth, and solidity of an object
  51. Motion parallax
    Distance cue (further=dont move, closer=move)
  52. Binocular cues
    Using both eyes
  53. Stereoscopic vision
    Obtained by combining 2 retinal fields overlap
  54. Retinal disparity
    Difference between the two images that the eyes recieve
  55. Monaural
    Single ear
  56. Binaural
    Two ears
  57. Real movement
    Refers to physical displacement of an object from one position to another
  58. Autokinetic illusion
    Percieved motion created by single stationary object
  59. Stroboscopic motion
    Apparent motion created by a rapid series of images of stationary objects
  60. Phi phenomenon
    Stroboscopic motion causes perceptual illusion
  61. Illusions
    • Physical-distortion of info reaching receptor cells
    • Perceptual-Misleading cues in stimuli
  62. Extrasensory Perception (esp)
    Info. not gained through known
  63. Types
    • Telepathy
    • Telekinesis
    • Mediumship
    • Psychokinesis
    • Precaugnition
    • Clairboyance
    • Astroprojection
  64. Telepathy
    Reading thoughts of others
  65. Telekinesis
    Moving things with mind
  66. Meduimship
    Saying you can talk to ghost
  67. Psychokinesis
    Move things without touching
  68. Precaugnition
    Predict future
  69. Clairboyance
    See things hidden from normal sences
  70. Astroprojection
    Can leave mind and be in other places
  71. Question of Probability
    Is it at random chance?
  72. Problems in Study of ESP
    • Non-reporting the ones that didnt work
    • Non-replication of experiment
    • Bias
    • Fraud
  73. Top-down Processing
    From whole to parts
  74. Bottom-up Processing
    From parts to whole
  75. Gate control theory
    Sensation of pain can be changed before it is perceived
  76. Accommodation
    Auto adjestment of the eye
  77. Transduction
    Stimulus enters body and goes from receptor energy to neuro impulse
  78. Coding
    Converting sensory inputs into different sensations
  79. Sensory Reduction
    Filtering and analyzing incoming sensations before sending neural messages on to the cortex
  80. Hyperopia
  81. Myopia
  82. Trichromatic Theory
    Red, green, blue can be combined to form all colors
  83. Opponent-process theory
    Based on 3 color system
  84. Conductive Deafness
    Middle ear problems with transferring soundwaves to inner ear
  85. Nerve Deafness
    Damage to cochlea, haircells, or...
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Sences and Perception