Yeltsin Years

  1. What is Democratization?
    Process of establishing a domcratic political system
  2. What is the most stable path of creating a democratic society
    To first grant society social liberties (freedom of press, religion, speech etc..) then to gradually include parts of the population that are previously excluded (slaves, women, etc..)
  3. What is the second path of establishing a democratic society
    Giving people the right to participate without cultivating respect for sociopolitical liberties required for democracy. (Get people to do things without them being something required by default. GET OFF YOUR ASS)
  4. What is the third and final path of establishing a democratic society
    Path of simultaneous liberalization and inclusivity. Problem being the simultaniety of each process creates an unstable environment that can lead to a failure of transmission
  5. What countries serve as evidence of failure to convert to democracy? KGB-TV-P
    Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Belorus, Tajikistan, Venezuela, and Pakistan
  6. Why was change to democratic society difficult for Soviet Society
    In history they had never experienced democratic rule
  7. What are the three parts of society which had to tranistion?
    Political, Social, and Economical
  8. What did Claus Offe identify
    Three hierarchial transition levels that were necessary 
  9. What is the basic level of Claus's identification
    Because Russia straddled Europe and Aisa, citizens were in a identity crisis
  10. What was the Intermediate level of Claus's identification
    The need to overhaul political and economic procedure, rights, and institutions
  11. What was the highest level of Claus's indentification
    Policies needed to be developed for the distribution of scarce goods and services
  12. What were the complexities Russian leaders faced in terms of policy and programs
    they would lead to progess in one area, might lead to failure in another area
  13. Who was the first President of the Russian Federation 
    Boris Yeltsin
  14. What type of family was Yeltsin bron too? What was the situation with his father?
    Born into a working class family, conditions were fowl under Stalin when his father was accused of subverse activities and sentenced to hard labor in Siberia
  15. What did Yeltsin study in college? What did he do after graduation?
    Studied construction engineering and management, and after graduation worked on several major construction projects
  16. Yeltsin became mayor of what Russian city? What did he take advantage of?
    He became the Mayor of Moscow and took advantage of Gorbachev's glasnost to critize the communist party.
  17. The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic was the largests for how many post Soviet republics 
    15 republics 
  18. What percent did Yeltsin win Presidency
    57 %
  19. Who did Yeltsin work with to disintegrate the remainder of the Soviet Union
    Gorbachev and the leaders of ukraine and belorussia
  20. What pact was established by Yeltsin between the forer Soviet republics
    Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) promotes trade and cooperation between the states
  21. Who were the groups/persons who held influence on Yeltsin's decision to apply the Shock Therapy
    Jeffrey Sachs, the United States, and International Monetary Fund (IMF) 
  22. shock therapy was designed to quickly remove state control and included measures such as _________ _________ _________
    radical privatization, currency devaluation, and fiscal restructuring 
  23. in theory shock therapy would lead to what type of outcome
    fast economic recovery and establishment of a market based economy that would expand to meet consumer demands
  24. Sachs' warned the processes of shock therapy had to be introduced immediatly, but it appears Russia did what instead
    implemented in stages, drawn over a long period of time to keep it subject of political calculations
  25. What was the first aspect of economic reforms yeltsin implemented
    rapid privitization of private resources
  26. What was the state voucher program? What was the problem with the voucher system
    all citizens would recieve vouchers to purchase stock of private markets. Problems being many russians made bad buisness decisions and focused more on immediate economic problems 
  27. How did the wealthy and investors profit from the voucher programs? What did this show of the voucher programs
    to solve short term economic problems russians would sell their vouchers for cash, keeping the wealthy wealthy by giving them greater chance at investment. This unermined the voucher systems credibility
  28. What was the problem with establishing a market system in russian economy
    Because goods and services were subsidized by the state, when the market privitization happened, correct market values for these goods was never established
  29. What did removal of price controls lead too
    hyperinflation of consumer goods
  30. How was welfare effected by state revenues decreasing? Who felt the impact most
    Welfare was decreased, forcing reduction of welfare programs which population became dependent on during soviet rule. Impact was felt most by women, children, the sick and old
  31. What was teh first porblem with russia's fail in shock therapy
    two classed system emerged, as a result, privledged members from teh communist party gained more wealth, taking advantage of privitization
  32. What was teh second problem with russia's fail in shock therapy
    delayed development of middle class 
  33. What was the third problem with russia's fail in shock therapy
    privitization took the states ability to hold welfare programs
  34. What filled the vacuum of the state lack of ability to provide for the people
    Russian mafia filled the gap with ability to favor loans, and affordable goods in exchange for loyalty
  35. What year was the Asian financial crisis
  36. Russia's defualting on laons lead to what
    IMF and World Bank cut russia off from loaning more money
  37. Yeltsin fired Prime Minister Chernomyrdin in favor of who
    Minister of Energy Sergei Kiriyenko
  38. Yeltsin replaced Kiriyenko with who
    Yevgeny Primakov, Foreign Minister
  39. Between 1991-1999 by what percent did GDP decrease
    14.65 %
  40. Unemployment rose from what in 1991 to what in 1999
    5.2% to 13%
  41. What were the inflation rates in 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1999
    875%, 307%,  197% and 86%
  42. the Duma forced Yeltsin into what
    The first Duma forced Yeltsin to appoint a conservative Prime Minister, Viktor Chernomyrdin.
  43. Who was Yeltsin's Prime Minister prior to the Duma forcing Yeltsin to select a new Prime Minister
    Yegor Gaidar
  44. What was the states natural gas monopoly
  45. Yeltsin called for the dissmissal of the first Duma, how did the Duma respond? How did Yeltsin end the situation
    The Parliment (Duma) called for impeachment of Yeltsin; after a while of fighting, Yeltsin used his power as commande of forces and assulted the Parliment on October 4th 1993
  46. The new, 1993 constitution was modeled after what
    Western democracy
  47. The president has the power to do what in the 1993 constitution
    • Call elections or public referenda
    • Introduced legislation
    • Appoint prime ministers
    • Impose martial law or emergency decrees
  48. What are the few significant checks on presidential action stemming from the 1993 constitution
    • Serves a maximum of two consecutive terms
    • Presidential appointments must be confirmed by theupper house of the legislature
    • Can be impeached for treason by the lower house
  49. Under the 1993 constitution, the Legislative can be reffered to also as what? What two branches is it made of
    Federal Assembly: made of the upper branch, Federal Council and lower branch, The Duma
  50. What was the responsiblity of the Federal Council in the 1993 constitution
    The upper chamber, or Federation Council, represents Russia’s 89 federal regions, with each region receiving twoseats. This body deals mainly with inter-region border andtrade disputes.
  51. What is teh responsiblity of the Duma under the 1993 constitution
    The lower chamber, or State Duma, represents the general population, with a total of 450 sitting legislators. It drafts all original legislation except in cases of treaties, tariffs,and war.
  52. How many parties and Independents were present in the Duma during these year. 1993, 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2007.
    • 1993:12, 146
    • 1995: 17, 77
    • 1999: 13, 114
    • 2003: 12, 68
    • 2007: 4, 0
  53. Through what two processes were Duma elected
    half & half between Proportional Representation: seats are given to parties based on percentage of votes recieved and Single-Member District: Candidates with votes
  54. Staring in 2007, what percent of votes did a party have to gain for a seat in the Duma
    7 %. Only four parties made this cut
  55. What 4 parties made the 7% mark with the new rules to addmitance into the Duma in 2007
    Fair Russia, Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR), Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF) and United Russia
  56. Fair Russia was a combination of what two parties? Why did they merge
    Rodina, theRussian Pensioners’ Party, and the Russian Life Party. Each of these parties had faced waning popular support
  57. What is the smallest party int he Duma, why what percents
    The Fair russia party is the smallest party in the Duma, with 7.7%of the vote and 38 seats in 2007
  58. What is Russia's second oldest political party
    Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR)
  59. What are the elements of the LDPR? Who do they blame for Russias decline
    anti-Semitism, fascism, and zenophobia. They blame the Jews and foriegners
  60. What percent of votes and number of seats does the LDPR hold in 2007
    Earned 8.4% of the vote and 40 seats in 2007
  61. What does the CPRF support
    Stalinist principles, some even call for the re-institution of the Soviet Union
  62. What is the second largest party in the Duma What percent of votes and seats did this party own in 2007
    The CPRF is the second largest party in the Duma, securing 12.7% of the vote in 2007
  63. The United Russia party was created by the merger of what two parties
    Resulted from a 2001 merger between the Unity party and the Fatherland All-Russia party
  64. What does the United Russia party emphasize
    Centrist platform with an emphasis on law andorder rather than democracy and individual rights and free market economic policies
  65. What percent of votes and number of seats does the United Russia party hold in 2007
    Won 64.3% of the vote and 315 seats in 2007
Card Set
Yeltsin Years
Social Science Section Iv: Post Soviet Russia