1. Frontal Lobe
    • Motor area (voluntary movement)
    • Muscle memory
    • Broca's area - speech
    • Eye movement
    • Prefrontal cortex - Intellect, cognition, recall, and personality. Linked to limbic system - emotional part of brain.
  2. Parietal Lobe
    • Association area
    • Integrates sensory information
    • Wernicke's area - Language
  3. Occipital Lobe
  4. Temporal Lobe
    • Hearing
    • Taste
    • Smell
    • Visceral sensory area
    • Vestibular cortex - balance
  5. Cerebellum
    Recieves information signals and calculates the best way to perform a movement
  6. Brainstem
    • Midbrain
    • Pons
    • Medulla Oblongata
  7. Diencephalon
    • Thalamus
    • Hypothalamus
    • Epithalamus
    • Integration of mind and body
  8. Posterior Association Area
    • Parts of temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes
    • Recognition of:
    • 1. Patterns and faces
    • 2. Localization in space - Where am I in this room?
    • 3. Self as related to environment
  9. Lateralization
    each hemisphere has abilities not shared with its partner
  10. Cerebral dominance
    designated the hemisphere dominant for language
  11. Left Hemisphere
    • controls:
    • 1. language
    • 2. math
    • 3. logic
  12. Right hemisphere
    • controls:
    • 1. visual-spatial skills
    • 2. emotion
    • 3. artistic skills
  13. Basal Nuclei
    • Corpus Striatum
    •   1. Caudate Nucleus
    •      a) Substantia nigra
    •   2. Lentiform Nucleus
    •      a) Putamen
    •      b) Globus palidus
    • Control of movement, monitoring motor intensity, multiple actions at once.
    • Damaged in Parkinson's Disease
  14. Thalamus
    Post office of the brain - gathers all sensory information coming in and directs it to the correct area of the brain.
  15. Hypothalamus
    • Regulates involuntary systems - blood pressure, rate and force of heartbeat, digestive tract motility, rate and depth of breathing.
    • Limbic funtions - pleasure, fear, and rage.
    • Maintains normal body temp
    • Regulates feeling of hunger and thirst
    • Regulates sleep cycle
    • Endocrine function - releases hormones
  16. Epithalamus
    • Regulates sleep
    • Pineal gland secretes melatonin
    • Melatonin - a hormone involved with sleep regulation, sleep cycles, and mood.
  17. The 5 lobes
    • 1. Frontal
    • 2. Parietal
    • 3. Occipital
    • 4. Temporal
    • 5. Cerebellum
  18. EEG
    • Electroencephalogram
    • Measures the sum of post-synaptic potentials across surface of the brain
  19. PET
    • Postitron Emission Tomography
    • Measures radioactivity as a measure of metabolic activity
  20. MRI
    • magnetic resonance imaging
    • Can image structures based on their water content, including blood flow.
  21. CT
    • computed tomography
    • Is basically 3D X-ray, to pinpoint lesions or tumors.
  22. Non-rapid eye movement (NREM)
    • NREM stages include:
    • Stage 1 – eyes are closed and relaxation begins; the EEG shows alpha waves; one can be easily aroused.
    • Stage 2 – EEG pattern is irregular with sleep spindles (high-voltage wave bursts); arousal is more difficult.
    • Stage 3 – sleep deepens; theta and delta waves appear; vital signs decline; dreaming is common.
    • Stage 4 – EEG pattern is dominated by delta waves; skeletal muscles are relaxed; arousal is difficult.
  23. Rapid eye movement (REM)
    • The EEG shows beta waves = fully alert??..yet not easily aroused.
    • Quite a bit of dreaming; vivid & emotional.
    • Motor activity (except eyes!) is inhibited, so you don’t act out dreams in REM.
  24. Narcolepsy
    lapsing abruptly into REM sleep from the awake state
  25. Insomnia
    chronic inability to obtain the amount or quality of sleep needed
  26. Sleep apnea
    temporary cessation of breathing during sleep
  27. Factors that affect transfer of memory from STM to LTM include:
    • Emotional state – we learn best when we are alert, motivated, and aroused.
    • Rehearsal – repeating or rehearsing material enhances memory.
    • Association – associating new information with old memories in LTM enhances memory.
    • Automatic memory – subconscious information stored in LTM - to which new memories connect.
  28. Meninges
    • Three connective tissue membranes lie external to the CNS – dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater
    • Functions of the meninges:
    •    1–Cover and protect the CNS
    •    2–Protect blood vessels
    •    3–Contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    •    4–Form partitions within the skull
  29. 1 Dura Mater
    • Leathery, strong meninx composed of two fibrous connective tissue layers.
    • The two layers separate in certain areas and form dural sinuses - drain venus blood back to jugular veins.
    • Three dural septa extend inward and limit excessive movement of the brain.
  30. 2 Arachnoid Mater
    • The middle meninx, which forms a loose brain covering
    • It is separated from the dura mater by the subdural space.
    • Beneath the arachnoid is a wide subarachnoid space filled with CSF and large blood vessels.
    • Arachnoid villi protrude superiorly and permit CSF to be absorbed into venous blood.
  31. 3 Pia mater
    Deep meninx composed of delicate connective tissue that clings tightly to the brain.
  32. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
    • Watery solution similar in composition to blood plasma.
    • Contains less protein and different ion concentrations than plasma.
    • Forms a liquid cushion that gives buoyancy to the CNS organs.
    • Prevents the brain from crushing under its own weight.
    • Protects the CNS from blows and other trauma.
    • Nourishes the brain and carries chemical signals throughout it.
  33. Choroid Plexuses
    • Clusters of capillaries that form fluid filters, which hang from the roof of each ventricle.
    • Allows fluid to enter ventricles via diffusion from capillaries.
    • Have ion pumps that allow them to alter ion concentrations of the CSF.
    • Help cleanse CSF by removing wastes.
  34. Blood-Brain Barrier
    • Protective mechanism that helps maintain a stable environment for the brain.
    • Selective barrier that allows nutrients to pass freely.
    • Is ineffective against substances that can diffuse through plasma membranes (ethanol, nicotine, some other drugs).
    • Absent in some areas (vomiting center and the hypothalamus), allowing these areas to monitor the chemical composition of the blood.
    • Stress, some chemicals, viruses increase the ability of chemicals to pass through the blood-brain barrier.
  35. Alzheimer’s disease
    a progressive degenerative disease of the brain that results in dementia
  36. Parkinson’s disease
    degeneration of the dopamine-releasing neurons of the substantia nigra
  37. Huntington’s disease
    a fatal hereditary disorder caused by accumulation of the protein huntingtin that leads to degeneration of the basal nuclei.
  38. Spongiform encephalopathy
    • Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease
    • Mad-cow Disease
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