1. French radical revolutionaries
  2. Swiss protestant
    John Calvin
  3. Reached the tip of Africa en route to India
    Bartholomeu Dias
  4. Reached India by sailing around Africa
    Vasco DaGama
  5. Led slave revolt on island of Santo Domingo
    Toussaint L'Ouverture
  6. English civil war leader of the Puritans
    Oliver Cromwell
  7. Radical leader of the Jacobins
    Maximilien Robespierre
  8. Beat Napoleon in his final battle
    Lord Wellington
  9. Emperor of France, created constitution, First Consul
    Napoleon Bonaparte
  10. year when Copernicus published his work on heliocentricity
  11. years of the English civil war
  12. years of the Enlightenment
  13. years of the French Revolution
  14. age of Napoleon
  15. Split in the Catholic church.  
    Protestant Reformation
  16. Father of Reformation; German monk, professor of philosophy and religion
    95 theses
    Martin Luther
  17. believed humanity is divided into 2 groups;
    Elect and the damned
    predestined before birth
  18. questioned and defied traditional beliefs of man-centered universe
    Scientific Revolution
  19. non-religious
  20. Period when leading thinkers wanted to use reason to test the laws of society. Critical Thinking
  21. using observation, experimentation and testing to draw conclusions about the natural world
    inductive reasoning
  22. drawing conclusions based on self-evident fact
    deductive reasoning
  23. experience, especially of the senses, is the only source of knowledge
  24. the theory that the earth revolves around the sun
  25. monarchs get their power from God
    divine right of kings
  26. body of non-elective government officials
  27. Napoleonic battle where Russian forces retreated drawing Napoleons army deeper and using more supplies.  130,000 men lost for Napoleon
    Battle of Borodino
  28. leader makes himself the center of everything
    cult of personality
  29. power rests in one person completely
  30. power is shared between a ruler and an elected parliament
  31. English Civil War loyalists to the king
  32. English Civil War enforcers for Parliament - Puritans
  33. Parliament lays down rules and accomodates a healthy parliamentary system
    Glorious Revolution
  34. implemented by William and Mary of Orange, during Glorious Revolution
    British Bill of Rights
  35. journey between Africa and the New World, for slaves
    Middle Passage
  36. a 3 leg trade route for slavery
    triangular trade
  37. people give up their freedom and govt agrees to protect their natural rights
    Social Contract Theory
  38. believe it is unknowable whether God exists
  39. Where Napoleon was defeated by the British generals, Lords Nelson and Wellington
  40. believe that God created the universe, but does not take an active roll in the day to day
  41. writers and thinkers during the Enlightenment
  42. the middle class
  43. French Parliament that didn't meet for 175 years
    Estates General
  44. prison stormed and torn down
  45. The Guillotine
    The Terror
  46. revolt in the French Revolution against the Reign of The Terror
    Thermidorian Reaction
  47. Napoleon organizes and codifies all local laws in France
    Still used today
    Code Napoleon
  48. Polish Astronomer who offered the thesis that the earth rotated on its axis once in 24 hours and heliocentricity
    Nicholas Copernicus
  49. Italian mathematician, perfected the telescope, supported Copernican Theory, forced by Church to deny his writings
    Galileo Galilei
  50. Englishman who published Principia Mathematica, in which he described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion
    Sir Isaac Newton
  51. years of the American Revolution
  52. championed the use of the Scientific Method, which uses inductive reasoning
    Sir Francis Bacon
  53. French rationalist who used deductive reasoning.  best know for I think, therefore I exist.
    Rene Descartes
  54. The sun king, divine right of kings, cult of personality
    Louis XIV
  55. King of England, didn't call Parliament for 11 years, raises an army against the Scots, surrenders and is beheaded
    Charles I
  56. Dutch rulers invited by Parliament to take the throne of England
    Glorious Revolution
    William and Mary of Orange
  57. Life is nasty, brutish and short
    Man needs to be controlled
    Human nature is dark
    Governments provide order from chaos
    Thomas Hobbes
  58. Social Contract Theory
    governments get their power from the consent of the governed
    all human beings have natural rights
    life, liberty, property
    John Locke
  59. Father of modern Capitalism
    individuals acting in their own self interest will also serve society's best interest
    Adam Smith
  60. German philosopher, father of modern philosophy
    Sapere aude (dare to know)
    Idealism - look at the world and people as they should be and make decisions accordingly
    Immanuel Kant
  61. applied Locke's Social Contract Theory when writing the Declaration of Independence
    Thomas Jefferson
  62. French absolutist
    Louis XVI
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