PSYC of G ch. 5

  1. psychoanalytic theory
    • originated by Freud
    • traditional approach to psychodynamic personality theory
    • relies on the concepts of unconscious forces and biologically determined instincts to explain personality development and functioning
  2. Freud's theory
    • hypothesized a series of psychosexual stages
    • oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
    • to account for influence of childhood experiences on adult personality
  3. phallic stage
    • gender differences
    • Oedipus complex
  4. Oedipus complex
    • children are attracted to their other-sex parent
    • feel feer and hostility toward same sex parent
    • boys experience a more traumatic and complete resolution than girls
  5. Horney's view
    • disputed Freud's view
    • agrued that social forces form basis for personality differences between sexes
    • men have feelings of inferiority compared to women
    • men try to feel more adequate by disparaging women
  6. Chodorow's theory
    • emphasizes primacy of the early relationship with mothers
    • boys have a more difficult time separating themselves form the feminine than do girls
    • men's success in forming a masculine identity is denial of all that is feminine
    • rejection of female values
  7. Kaschak's theory
    • relies on Oedipus legend
    • Oedipus personifies men's drives for power and feelings of entitlement
    • patriarchal culture perpetuates these roles and makes resolving these complexes difficult for men and women
  8. alternatives to psychodynamic theory
    • social learning theory
    • cognitive theories
  9. social learning approach
    • concepts of observational learning and modeling
    • explain how children learn and perform gender-related behaviors
    • family and culture provide models and reinforcements for discouraging others
    • power of children's family and social surroundings
    • orderly pattern of gender development not consistent with this theory
  10. cognitive development theory
    • gender identity is a cognitive concept
    • process of learning about the physical world and their own bodies
    • children under age 2 have not concept of gender
    • develop gender constancy - last types of gender knowledge to be acquired, problem for this theory
  11. gender schema theory
    • explains gender identity in terms of schemata
    • gender stereotyping is a natural extension of the process of developing gender schemata
    • children become stereotypical in their gender behavior and judgements
  12. schemata
    • cognitive structures that underlie complex concepts
    • children change they way that they deal with information concerning gender
    • children change their behavior to conform to gender roles
  13. psychodynamic theories and research
    • little research support
    • research fails to confirm any one theory to the exclusion of others
  14. castration complex
    • Freudian theory
    • the unconscious fear that the father will castrate his son as punishment for the son's sexual longings for his mother
  15. gender constancy
    the knowledge that gender is a permanent characteristic and will not change with superficial alterations
  16. gender labeling
    the ability to label self and others as male or female
  17. instincts
    • Freudian theory
    • the drives or impulses that underlie action, thought and other aspects of personality functioning
  18. masochism
    feeling of pleasure as a result of painful or humiliating experiences
  19. operant conditioning
    • type of learning based on administration of reinforcement or punishment
    • receiving reinforcement links the reinforcement with the behavior that preceded it, making the behavior more likely to be repeated
  20. pre-Oedipal period
    • time during early childhood
    • before phallic stage and Oedipus complex
    • important for personality development
  21. psychosexual stages
    • Freudian theory
    • series of stages ranging from birth to maturity through which individual's personality develops
    • oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
  22. punishment
    any stimulus that decreases the probability that a behavior will be repeated
  23. reinforcement
    any stimulus that increases the probability that a behavior will be repeated
  24. schema
    an internal cognitive structure that organizes information and guides perception
  25. unconscious
    • Freudian theory
    • region of the mind functioning beyond a person's conscious awareness
Card Set
PSYC of G ch. 5
PSYC of G ch. 5