ANSC 100

  1. Sentinels
    Organisms whose known characteristics can be measured to access the extent of environmental implications... and to provide early warning of thse implications.
  2. Examples of animals as sentinels
    • Lyme disease in North America (fleas)
    • Minamata disease (dancing cats)
    • Canaries in the mines
  3. Lyme Disease
    • Borrelia burgdorderi
    • Vector is Ixodes ticks (not common in AB)
    • Primary hosts: mice, squirrels, other mammals, small birds, ... Migratory birds?
    • TIck infected by biting rodent, then later bites larger animal...
    • Pathogen transmitted when tick's mouthparts are attached for 18-24 hours
    • Spread from eastern US, not yet thought to be endemic in AB,
    • Surveillance program in AB since 2007--> submit ticks to vets--> ab ag parasitology
    • Several ticks submitted in AB in 2011 and 2012 were infected
  4. Symptoms 4 Lyme disease
    • Humans: fever, headache, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, arthritis
    • Bulls-eye rash
    • Dogs: fever, lethargy, shifting arthritis
    • Diagnosis: blood testing (for antibodies)
    • Treatment: antibiotics¬†
  5. Minamata Disease
    • In 1965, first patient suffering from nervous symptoms
    • Patients were men and women, but not children, later children were born with it...
    • First clue was cats are behaving in similar ways... (cat dancing disease)¬†
    • Staple food of residents and pets was seafood, thus fish- shellfish mediate food poisioning was first to become suspect
    • Ending the contamination, cleanup and compensation of victims took many years
  6. Human Population Growth:
    Its effects on Sentinels
    • Loss or modification of habitat
    • Predation (ecological changes affecting predators or prey)
    • Introduction of non-native species
    • Air and water quality impacts
    • Climate changes
  7. Water Quality & Quantity Effects
    • Herbicides
    • Pesticides
    • Heavy Metals
    • Other materials in run-off
    • Decreased pH & increased salinity
    • Lowering of water table
    • Loss of freshwater spring flows
  8. Air Quality Effects
    • Greenhouse gas production
    • Volatile organic compounds
    • Aerosolized pesticides & other chemicals
    • Particulate matter and silt/sedimentation
  9. Need to bridge the gap
    Between ecologists and medicine
  10. Complementary Approach: Naturally Occuring Disease in Animal Populations
    • Companion Animals
    • Livestock
    • Wildlife
  11. Descriptive epidemiology
    Characterize the frequency and patterns of disease in animal populations and identify possible associations with environmental exposures
  12. Analytic epidemiology
    Test hypotheses of environmental exposure-disease relationships in animals using controlled-observational methods
  13. In situ studies
    • Placement of sentinel animals were environmental contamination is suspected
    • Monitor the animals to assess health effecs.
  14. Ideal animal sentinel
    Is exposed to chemical contaminants in habitats share with humans, or is comparable
  15. Optimize sentinels
    • Animals can serve as valuable sentinels for hazards in the home, ONLY if they are recognized and reported in timely matter...
    • This system requires cooperation between human and vet. health specialists
Card Set
ANSC 100
Last section before midterms