It refers to the fact that every word presupposes another word that precedes it
or anticipates it.
Every word is therefore naturally dialogic by virtue of its existence in
relation to other words.
defining quality of language and its fundamental sense making
It could also refer to the mixing of styles and intentions in political
constantly position their utterances in relation to other texts or
Varieties of language within political texts create their own settings as
All varieties of language have the capacity to influence and change the
positions of their users.
The social and historical voices populating political texts are organized into
a structured stylistic system that expresses the differentiated
socio-ideological positions of political actors.
The political context can refract, add to, or in some cases subtract meaning
from an utterance.
Political discourse is synchronically informed by contemporary languages,
styles, and registers, and diachronically informed by their historical roles
and the future roles we anticipate for them.
Both notions rely on allusion, parody, restatements and quotations.
Texts and discourses are intertextual because they echo, allude, and parody
They do so because by their very nature, they are polyphonic and not because they
necessarily subscribe to some meta-text.
Hybridity encompasses both cultural and verbal characteristics of discourse
whereas intertextuality emphasizes the verbal,
the cognitive, and the textual alone.
Hybridity implies the intermingling of linguistic and/or cultural traits from
different social and historical backgrounds.
Written statements of political parties’ policies and beliefs. Manifestos publicly display a political party’s intentions, motives and beliefs. The language used in political manifestos tend to be persuasive and are typical of political speeches
Language of Manifestos
(a) Rhetorical, that is, they involve the art of using persuasive discourse. The political actors choose issues that are tellable, listenable, attract attention (called soundbites.) and cause an audience to accept it happily. Thus, the content is carefully chosen to make it context sensitive.
(b)Parallelism: phonic, syntactic, semanticRepeating a sound, a stretch (phrase, clause, sentence) three times.
Semantic parallelism: using words from the same semantic field.
(c) Contrastive Pairs or Antithesis: Using a two-part utterance in which the parts are in opposition.
(d)Intertextuality: reference to faith and believe systems and to the Bible.
(e) Political Prounouns
personal/impersonal, metonymic reference, closeness and distancing, Personal involvement, Accepting responsibility and giving agency to actions (showing who does what.)Being in touch with the whole country (closeness).Willingness to share blame, responsibility, fame, etc. with others.Multiple and Ambiguous Pronoun Reference
(f)Semantically Dense, Strong as well as Emotionally Valent Vocabularies
(g) The Number Game
(h) Play on words
(i) Abstract words that have positive qualities
(j) Temporal cohesion: linking past and present (k) strong positive view of party or country's future
Personal Pronouns: e.g. I, you, he/she, we, you, they