A division of human beings identified by the possession of traits that aretransmissible by descent and that are sufficient to characterize persons possessingthese traits as a distinctive human genotype.
Any attitude, belief, behavior, or institutional arrangementthat favors one race or ethnic group (usually a majority group) over another (usually aminority group).
What are the two Forms of Racism
a. Intentional racism is a conscious act, usually motivated by prejudice or intent toharm.
b. Unintentional racism is an unconscious act that, while not usually motivated byprejudice or intent to harm, is still damaging. Prejudice underlies the end result.Examples include:
Recognize the difference between overt and covert racism.
Overt racism is usually blatant, obvious, and almost alwaysmeant to harm.
Covert racism is harmful treatment of members ofsubordinate racial groups that is hidden, usually subtle, and difficult to document and prove.
Describe internal factors that contribute to racism.
A lack of understanding of the history, experiences, values, and perceptions ofethnic groups other than one’s own.
Stereotyping the members of an ethnic group without consideration of individualdifferences within the group.
Ethnocentrism – judging other ethnic groups according to the standards andvalues of one’s own group.
Assigning negative attributes to members of other ethnic groups.
Evaluating the qualities and experiences of other groups as inferior to one’s own.
Describe external factors that contribute to racism.
o Family, peers, and friends are a very important influence on the development ofindividual racism.
o Social visibility – Differences in physical appearance are the easiest differences toidentify and use as a basis for discrimination.
Contact – The amount and kind of contact develops racial thinking; ideas tend tobe vague and partially attributable to ethnocentrism.
Mass media – Television, newspapers, magazines, radio, and the Internet aremajor sources of stereotypical images, generally negative
Unequal power – When groups of unequal power interrelate, the stronger grouptends to dominate the weaker group. The dominant group resists sharing itspowers.
Competition – Occurs when two or more individuals are striving for the same,sometimes scarce, resources; certain groups look at other groups as a threat if theyobtain control of one or more of the resources.
Define the three Rs Syndrome.
Reject – Minorities were not allowed to enlist in the armed services at the onset ofperiods of hostilities.
Recruit – When the need for military personnel increased because of manpowerdemands and insufficient numbers, minorities were recruited. This was usuallyduring a conflict and after enormous casualties. After induction, most minoritieswere segregated.
Reject – Once the hostilities were over, the units were disbanded and the racialminorities were released from any requirements to serve, despite their desire tocontinue service. In some cases, minorities were denied veterans’ benefits.
Identify strategies to combat racism in then military.
The following is a list of actions that leadership can use to effectively reduce andeliminate racist behavior. As the EOA in your unit, you can guide your commanderin implementing these strategies.
Establish policies prohibiting racist behaviors and racial discrimination.
Provide thorough investigations of informal and formal complaints.
Adhere to established timelines for complaint investigations.
Enforce penalties against offenders.
Enforce penalties against unit commanders or other superiors who allow racistbehaviors to continue.
CONTINUED: The following is a list of actions that leadership can use to effectively reduce andeliminate racist behavior. As the EOA in your unit, you can guide your commanderin implementing these strategies.
Ensure that information moves up the chain of command on problems andincidents relating to racist behaviors.
Protect those who make complaints.
Publicize the availability of hotlines for complaints. Publicize the availability of complaint channels.
Take extra steps beyond mandatory requirements to understand and correctunderlying issues or problems.
Describe types of racism
Individual racism is the belief that one’s own race is superior to another (racialprejudice) and behaviors that suppress the ―inferior‖ race (racial discrimination).
Institutional racism takes the form of the practices, customs, rules, and standards oforganizations—including governments—that unnecessarily disadvantage peoplebecause of their race, color, or ethnicity. Institutional racism:
Consists of established laws, customs, and practices that systematically reflect andproduce racial inequalities in U.S. society. Is embedded in policies that have generally become accepted as normal and mayor may not have been intentionally written to practice racism. Is more subtle, less visible, and less identifiable than individual acts of racism.Managers may not be racists as individuals, but they may discriminate as part ofsimply carrying out their jobs, often without being aware that their role iscontributing to a discriminatory outcome.
Recognize racist behavior
Racist behavior include violence, name-calling, and discrimination in hiring practices.
Racist Behavior can be:
Directed toward an individual or group.
Based on skin color, ethnicity, or race.
Perpetrated by an individual and/or an institution.
Graffiti, racial and ethnic slurs andjokes, and intimidation or physical violence.
Differance between Intentional and Unintential behavoir.
Intentional racism is a conscious act, usually motivated by prejudice or intent toharm.
Unintentional racism is an unconscious act that, while not usually motivated byprejudice or intent to harm, is still damaging. Prejudice underlies the end result.Examples include:
Historical Events that contributed to Racism in the military.