Service concepts fc.csv

  1. 1 and 6 Service failure
    Any situation in the course of the service delivery when something goes wrong, irrespective of responsibility
  2. Absolute target
    A performance target based on a comparison with a specified standard, e.g. zero defects, no patient deaths
  3. Adaptive organisation
    A service organisation in high-variety/low-volume operation with a facilitative management style that allows service employees a high degree of discretion in developing products and processes
  4. Aggregation
    A network strategy that combines isolated elements of infrastructure intelligence into one large pool of shared infrastructure
  5. Arbitrage
    A network strategy that aims to move intelligence to other locations where the cost of maintaining it is lower, e.g. moving call centres to India
  6. B2B (businessto-business)
    Services provided by businesses to other businesses or organisations, consultancy firm providing a service to Telecom
  7. B2C (businessto-consumer)
    Services that people buy for themselves or for other people, e.g. calling in a plumber to fix your toilet
  8. Backstage or back office activities
    Actions not directly visible to the customer that assist in creating the service experienced by the customer, e.g. Distance library service office at Massey Library
  9. Balanced scorecard
    A framework that encourages managers to use a mix of different measures to evaluate the organisation's performance, viz., financial, operational, developmental and external
  10. Balking
    The action of a customer who arrives to purchase a service, but when confronted with a long queue, quits the service process and seeks service elsewhere
  11. Belief control system
    A control system that conveys key values of the organisation to employees and aims at inspiring them to greater performance
  12. Benchmarking
    The measuring of a process or an organisation against an internal or an external target
  13. Big and little thinking
    The ability of excellent service organisations not to lose sight of the overall strategy, while at the same time paying close attention to the detail of the service operation
  14. Bottleneck
    Part of a service system or service process that constrains or restricts capacity
  15. Boundary control system
    A control system that states minimum standards or lays down rules governing acceptable employee behaviour
  16. Bow tie relationship
    A traditional buyer-supplier relationship, in which transactions are channelled through one point of contact, usually a sales or contract manager
  17. Brand promise
    The promise of brand value, created, communicated and maintained by the service provider, e.g. "Everyone gets a bargain" for The Warehouse
  18. Business focus
    An activity that involves splitting a service operation into a number of distinct businesses, each of which focuses on a specific market segment
  19. Calling population
    The size of the customer base likely to call on a particular service
  20. Capability mapping
    A specific form of concept audit that explores the opportunities for making better use of operational potential
  21. Capability(service process)
    A type of service that focuses on a customised service, with high differentiation and low volume, e.g. management consultant
  22. Capable process
    A service process that is in control and is delivering the level of quality promised by the service provider and expected by the customer
  23. Capacity leakage
    A loss of capacity due to e.g. sickness, absenteeism, underperformance or poor scheduling
  24. Capacity management
    A management activity concerned with developing a plan to make the best use of resources, given the forecasted or expected demand for the service
  25. Chase capacity
    A capacity management strategy that attempts to match supply to demand by building flexibility into the system
  26. Commodity (service process)
    A type of service that focuses on providing little variety to customers but a high volume of transactions, e.g. fast food outlets like McDonalds
  27. Competitive advantage
    A particular quality, attribute or technology, etc., that gives a company the edge over their competitors
  28. Complacent Organisation
    An organisation that has excellent service outcomes, but has a poor standard of customer service
  29. Compliant organisation
    A service organisation in high-volume/low-variety operation with a directive management style that requires service employees to comply to a predetermined service design
  30. Concept audit
    An activity that involves analysing a service offering and making comparisons between service concepts in order to identify potential for redesigning and improving the service
  31. Concept blueprint
    A process map that depicts the macro-level of a service organization, showing how each task or function contributes to the service as a whole
  32. Coping zone
    A level of resource utilisation when demand increases to a point at which service staff begin to struggle to provide quality service
  33. Creative discretion
    Discretion given to a service employee to decide not only how to perform a task, but also what task to perform
  34. Critical factors
    Factors that are critical to the success of the service provision because they have the potential both to delight and dissatisfy customers
  35. Critical incident technique (CIT)
    A customer satisfaction analytical tool that attempts to identify the things that delight and dissatisfy customers
  36. Customer confidence
    The action of a customer having belief, trust or faith in an organisation, its staff and its services, even when the customer has had no previous contact with the organisation
  37. Customer relationship management(CRM)
    In high-volume consumer services, activities aimed at growing a more profitable business by forming a better understanding of the needs of individual customers through the use of IT
  38. Customer satisfaction
    The result of customers' assessment of a service based on a comparison of their perceptions of service delivery with their prior expectations of the service delivery
  39. Customer satisfaction barometer
    A form of index which uses survey findings to measure customer satisfaction with an entire business sector
  40. Data warehousing
    An activity involving the use of an integrated data source to collect, clean and store information about customers
  41. Delivery flexibility
    The action of increasing capacity flexibility by developing a capability to change the timing of the activity to suit the service customer
  42. Demand management
    A resource management strategy that aims to influence the demand profile e.g. by pricing strategies or by restricting service, in order to smooth the load on the available resources
  43. Detailed blueprint
    A process map that depicts the micro-level of an organization, showing details of a section of the whole service system
  44. Deviant discretion
    Discretion which is not management-approved, and which is exercised by a service employee acting on his own authority
  45. Diagnostic control system
    A control system that uses standard performance indicators such as sales per employee or employee response times
  46. Diamond relationship
    A buyer-supplier relationship in which multiple links at different levels are encouraged between organisations
  47. Discommendation
    Opposite of a recommendation
  48. Disconfirmation of expectations
    The outcome of the comparison customers make between their prepurchase expectations of the service performance and post-purchase perceptions of that performance
  49. Disintermediation
    The action of cutting out the middleman in a supply chain or network
  50. DIY service
    A high-volume, low-variety service operation dealing in runners and repeaters, with high customer involvement, e.g. fitness club
  51. Drivers network
    The network of levers or pressures that service managers can apply to achieve an anticipated service delivery outcome, namely, process, people, resources and networks/technology/information
  52. e-procurement
    A type of procurement that creates disintermediation by allowing individual employees to order goods and services directly from their own PCs through the internet
  53. e-service
    The delivery of service using new media such as PCs, digital TV, mobile phones and the internet
  54. e2e processes
    Service processes that are managed from start to finish by one service provider
  55. Emergent strategy
    A strategy which tends to be bottom-up and starts with an idea for a new service concept or the emergence of new operational capabilities
  56. Encounter focus
    The action of encouraging and/or training service staff to recognise and deal with varying customer needs during the initial service encounter
  57. Enhancing factors
    Factors that are not indispensable (i.e. they could be absent) in a service, but if they are present, they have the potential to delight the customer
  58. Explicit services
    The essential features of a service that provide readily observable benefits, e.g. a full stomach after a pizza delivery
  59. External target
    A performance target used in external benchmarking and based on a comparison with other companies' performances, either competitors on non-competitors
  60. Facilitating goods
    During the service delivery, goods or items purchased or consumed by the customer e.g. this study guide, or items provided by the customer, e.g. your personal computer
  61. Fail point
    A point in a service process at which there is the potential for the process to break down and therefore, for the service provision to fail
  62. Failing organisation
    An organisation that has outcomes below industry specifications, and that has a poor standard of customer service
  63. Failsafing
    The action of designing a device or mechanism into a service process in order to prevent service failure
  64. FIFO
    First in, first out, or first come, first served, capacity allocation system, e.g. the first person in the queue at Ticketek is served first
  65. Focus group
    A group of customers brought together by trained facilitator to discuss aspects of a particular service
  66. Focused service operations
    Activities that provide a narrow range of service offerings, e.g. restaurant with a fixed, limited menu
  67. Front stage or front office activities
    Interactions between the customer and frontline personnel that are generally visible to the customer, e.g. librarians at check-out desk at Massey Library
  68. G2C (governmentto-consumer)
    Services provided to the community by national and/or local government,e.g. drinking water supply
  69. Heterogeneity
    The potential for a service to vary in terms of quality and outcomes from customer to customer
  70. Hierarchical network
    A network consisting of different levels of priority or specialisation, typical of a supply chain
  71. High value customer
    A customer whose financial value to an organisation over the long term is of vital importance to the organisation
  72. Hub and spoke network
    A network using a central point or hub which is connected to secondary centres, such as an air travel or mail distribution network
  73. Hygiene factors
    Factors that are indispensable in a service, otherwise their absence will cause customer dissatisfaction
  74. Implicit services
    Less obvious features of the service that provide psychological benefits, e.g. 'peace of mind' from home insurance
  75. Intangibility
    The fact that a service, in pure terms, cannot be seen or touched
  76. Interactive control system
    A control system that focuses on detecting the way the environment and the task of the organisation are changing by interacting with the process, the employees and/or the customers
  77. Interlinking
    An organisation's attempt to understand the relationships between different performance measures in order to improve the performance of the organisation
  78. Intermediary
    A middleman who sells a product or service to an end-customer on behalf of one or more suppliers
  79. Internal customer
    A member of an organization to whom a service is provided by someone else in the same organization, often from a different unit or department.
  80. Internal target
    A performance target used in internal benchmarking and based on a comparison either with the past performance of an internal company process, or with the performance of other similar internal company processes
  81. Inventory
    An organisation's, goods, raw materials, and finished and unfinished products which are in storage and which have not yet been sold
  82. Key account management (KAM)
    An activity which enables a relationship between a supplier and customer by encouraging and promoting contact at multiple levels and in multiple organisation functions
  83. Key decision area matrix (KDAM)
    A service tool that helps to categorise service processes by identifying where the prime value is added, and therefore what should be the key focus of attention for the service manager
  84. Lean thinking
    A production system that uses continuous improvement and waste reduction to reduce costs
  85. Level capacity
    A capacity management strategy that aims to maximise the utilisation of scarce or expensive fixed resources
  86. LIFO
    Last in, first out capacity management system, used, e.g. in the loading of delivery trucks
  87. Line of visibility
    The line separating backstage and frontstage activities in a service process. This can be either a real line drawn on a service blueprint or a virtual 'line' within the service venue.
  88. Mass service
    A service organisation that provides a very labour-intensive service with low interaction and low customisation , e.g. fast-food chain
  89. Mere satisfaction
    A level of customer satisfaction that occurs when service delivery meets the customer's expectations, but is not strong enough to guarantee the customer's loyalty to the service firm
  90. Mystery shopper
    Trained auditors who assess an organisation's service quality by using the service incognito, and preparing a report on specific aspects of the service
  91. Negative disconfirmation
    A process that occurs when a service's perceived performance fails to meet a customer's expectations, resulting in disappointment
  92. Network
    A configuration of resources linked through physical, virtual or other forms of information transfer which combine to produce enhanced service offerings and better operational performance
  93. Neutral factors
    Factors that have little effect on customer satisfaction with a service
  94. New product flexibility
    The action of increasing capacity flexibility by introducing new services into an existing mix
  95. Normative expectations
    What customers believe should happen during a service experience, usually based on little or no experience with the service
  96. Offshoring
    A form of outsourcing, involving the splitting off and relocation of part of an organisation's operation to an overseas country, in order to take advantage of e.g. a low wage economy
  97. Operational focus
    Activities that involve splitting an operation into several different parts, each of which caters for specific customer needs
  98. Outsourcing
    The action of splitting off part of an operation and contracting it to a specialist company separate from the original organisation
  99. Overall satisfaction
    Cumulative customer satisfaction based on all the transactions in a service delivery
  100. Perishability
    The fact that a service ceases to exist if it is not used
  101. Personal relationship
    A one-to-one long-term relationship between a customer and an individual service provider
  102. Planned strategy
    A strategy which tends to be top-down and starts with a statement of corporate objectives or an evaluation of the environment and market opportunities
  103. Positive disconfirmation
    The process that occurs when a service's perceived performance exceeds a customer's expectations, resulting in strong satisfaction or delight
  104. Predictive expectations
    What customers believe is likely to happen during a service experience, usually based on past experience with the service
  105. Procurement
    A function within an organisation that is responsible for supply chain management and that involves purchasing from external suppliers on behalf of internal customers
  106. Product mix flexibility
    Activities aimed at increasing capacity flexibility by developing an ability to deliver more than one service product at a time
  107. Product relationship
    A relationship between a customer and a service provider based on locking the customer into long-term loyalty through the use of benefits, privileges and bonuses which make switching difficult
  108. Professional service
    A service organisation providing highly labour-intensive service with high interaction and high customisation, e.g. firm of lawyers
  109. Pull
    A production system based on manufacturing one item and replenishing it as soon as it has been sold
  110. Push
    A production system based on manufacturing multiple products before they have been sold
  111. Queue configuration
    The number of queues in a service system, their location, spatial requirements and arrangement
  112. Queuing theory
    Statistical models used to predict and manage queuing situations in service processes
  113. Reassembly
    A network strategy that enables information from a variety of sources to be consolidated into a personalised package for customers, e.g. Stream at Massey University
  114. Relationship marketing
    Activities aimed at managing customer relationships by establishing, maintaining and enhancing relationships with individual customers for mutual benefit
  115. Reneging
    The action of a customer who initially joins a queue for a service, but then abandons the queue e.g. because it is taking too long, and leaves before the service can be provided
  116. Repeaters
    Standard activities in a service process which are more complex than runners and occur less frequently, e.g. hospital dealing with relatives of deceased patient
  117. Replenishment lead time
    The interval in days between an order being made with a supplier and the goods being delivered
  118. Responsiveness
    The speed and timeliness of service delivery
  119. Results network
    The main results of service delivery and the relationships between these aspects of business performance, e.g. the relationship between customer satisfaction and financial performance
  120. Rewiring
    A network strategy that aims to coordinate processes more tightly across individuals and organisations by updating and/or reconfiguring a network, e.g. by adding a new function
  121. Ring network
    A network form in the shape of a ring, allowing alternative routing, should one route fail, often used by the internet and utilities
  122. Role ambiguity
    Situation in which a service provider is unsure of the exact requirements of the service role she is carrying out, often caused by ineffective management or supervision
  123. Role clarity
    Clarity in the mind of a customer-facing service provider about adhering to the level of service laid down by the organisation and providing the service the customer requires
  124. Role conflict
    (1) A clash in a service provider's mind between the relative priorities of the different responsibilities of a service role
  125. Role fit
    The principle that a service organisation should ensure a fit between the personalities, skills and experience of individual staff on the one hand, and the service task they are called on to do, on the other
  126. Routine discretion
    Discretion given to a service employee to decide how a basic task is performed, rather than what task is undertaken
  127. Runners
    Standard activities in a service process, usually found in high-volume operations, e.g. passenger check-in at airport
  128. Satisfaction mirror
    A virtuous cause-effect relationship between staff and customer satisfaction, whereby staff satisfaction leads to customer satisfaction and vice-versa
  129. Sequential incident analysis (SIA)
    A customer satisfaction analytical tool that walks customers through a map of the service and asks them for their experiences at each stage of the service process
  130. Service
    A process consisting of a series of more or less intangible activities which are provided as solutions to customer problems. These activities normally take place in interactions between the customer and service employees and/or physical resources or goods and/or systems of the service provider.
  131. Service blueprinting
    A type of service process mapping which produces a picture of the entire service process, or of a specific part
  132. Service capacity
    The maximum level of value-added activity over a period of time that the service process can consistently achieve under normal operating conditions
  133. Service concept
    An explicit statement made by a service organisation about the nature of its service offering, encapsulating the essential idea inherent in the service, the way the service is delivered, the way the provider deals with the customer, the outcome for the customer and the benefit for the customer
  134. Service cue
    A signal (usually something tangible) to customers intended to influence their expectations and perceptions of the quality of service provided, e.g. a management consultant wearing an expensive suit
  135. Service culture
    A positive service culture exists in an organisation when everyone shares the same set of values based on the overriding desire to provide excellent service to both internal and external customers, and shares the same belief that providing excellent service is self-evident.A negative service culture is the opposite of this.
  136. Service factory
    A service organisation which provides a highly capital intensive service with high volumes, low interaction and low customisation, e.g. Air New Zealand
  137. Service guarantee
    A promise to recompense a customer for service that fails to meet a defined level
  138. Service level agreement (SLA)
    A contract usually between suppliers and customers which defines the nature and quality of the service provided, as well as the operational relationship and the long-term relationship of the parties
  139. Service orientation
    A service provider's attitudes and behaviours towards the customer in terms of providing the service, which can impact on the customer's perception of the quality of the service
  140. Service partnership
    A service operation focused on repeaters and strangers, with a high level of customisation and high customer involvement, e.g. an interior design consultant
  141. Service performance network
    A combination of the results network and the drivers network and the relationships between them
  142. Service probe
    A performance measurement tool that benchmarks service organisations against a database of drivers and results of business performance
  143. Service process
    A series of steps or procedures involving interactions, usually between people or between people and resources, that together constitute the delivery of a service
  144. Service process mapping
    The charting of a service process in order to assist in the evaluation, design and development of new or existing processes
  145. Service project
    A service operation focused on repeaters and strangers with limited customer involvement, e.g. market research company
  146. Service quality
    The customer's overall perception of the relative inferiority or superiority of an organisation's services
  147. Service recovery
    The action of seeking out and dealing with failures in the service process in order to improve the performance of service delivery and to satisfy or delight service customers
  148. Service script
    A specific form of words taught to a service provider and used in a specific service interaction in order to e.g. find out customer needs, guide the customer smoothly through the interaction, or provide consistent service provider responses across multiple sites
  149. Service shop
    A service organisation that provides a highly capital intensive service with high interaction and high customisation, e.g. hospital
  150. Service specification
    An agreement between a service provider and a customer that defines the nature of the service to be provided, the quality of the service and the price to be paid for the service
  151. Service strategy
    The set of plans and policies by which a service organisation aims to meet its objectives
  152. Service system blueprint
    A tool used to depict and analyse all the processes involved in providing a service
  153. Service transaction analysis (STA)
    A form of walk-through audit, combining the service process, the service concept, transaction quality and service messages with the emotions felt by the customer at various stages of the process
  154. Servicescape
    The physical surroundings of the service operation, including the location, design, appearance, layout, ambience, signage, artefacts, etc. that can influence the behaviours and perceptions of both customers and employees
    A multiple-item questionnaire that service organisations use to measure customer satisfaction, by comparing customer expectations with their perceptions of the service
  156. Simultaneity
    The fact that a service is created and consumed at the same time
  157. Smoothing
    In the management of capacity and demand, an activity that involves flattening demand peaks and/or filling in demand troughs in order to better match demand with capacity
  158. Standard operating procedure (SOP)
    A checklist of actions required to successfully perform a service process, which can be audited for compliance under a quality system
  159. Statistical process control (SPC)
    A tool to measure the performance of a process and to determine whether or it is in control or out of control
  160. Stockout
    The situation in inventory management when inventory is run down to a point at which you run out of stock entirely
  161. Strangers
    Non-standard activities in a service process, usually associated with a oneoff project, e.g. a charter flight
  162. Strategic linkage map
    A visual representation of a company's critical objectives and the relationships among them that drive organisational performance
  163. Strategic relationship
    A longer-term relationship between a customer and service provider involving a higher level of information exchange
  164. Stretch target
    A performance target intended to make a dramatic improvement in service performance in relation to that of a competitor
  165. Substitutability
    The extent to which it is easy or even possible to substitute one providers' service for another provider's service
  166. Supply chain
    A link or network that joins together internal and external suppliers with internal and external customers
  167. Supply chain management (SCM)
    Activities aimed at managing the network and the flow of information, materials, services and customers through a supply network
  168. Supply chain management (SCM)
    Managing the network between suppliers and consumers and the flow of information, materials, services and customers through the network
  169. Supporting facility
    The physical resources that must be in place before a service can be offered, e.g. lecture theatres in a university
  170. Switching
    The action of a consumer deserting a service provider and swapping over to another provider that offers a similar or identical service
  171. Switching costs
    The costs or penalties incurred by a customer for swapping over from one service provider to another, either in financial terms or in terms of time, effort, convenience, etc.
  172. Temporary relationship
    A brief relationship between a salesperson and a customer aimed at establishing common ground so that the sale can be successfully closed
  173. The ally (customer type)
    A valued customer with a positive frame of mind, willing to help and give positive feedback to facilitate the service
  174. The anarchist (customer type)
    A customer who dislikes rules and systems
  175. The champion (customer type)
    A valued customer who is supportive and helpful and who spreads positive WOM about the service organisation
  176. The hostage (customer type)
    A customer locked into a service contract with a provider, and who may become difficult when service performance deteriorates
  177. The incompetent (customer type)
    Usually a new customer who is confused and threatened by service procedures and who may not return if not properly trained by staff
  178. The intolerant (customer type)
    An impatient, troublesome customer likely to stress service providers and other customers, and who could turn into a Terrorist without careful handling
  179. The moment of truth
    In a service transaction, the brief opportunity the service provider has to demonstrate to the customer the quality of the service on offer
  180. The patient (customer type)
    A customer locked into a service provision, e.g. a hospital patient, who is neutral or positive about the organisation, but who could become an anarchist or hostage if subjected to over-regulation
  181. The terrorist (customer type)
    A customer who mounts a damaging attack on the service when you least expect it
  182. The tolerant (customer type)
    A passive, patient customer, prepared to wait but could get ignored as a result
  183. The victim (customer type)
    A customer who attracts bad luck
  184. Transaction satisfaction
    Customer satisfaction with a single transaction during service delivery
  185. Transactional relationship
    A one-off relationship between a customer and a service provider which has a minimum level of information exchange
  186. Unfocused service operations
    Service operations that provide a wide range of service offerings, e.g. local government offices
  187. Value stream
    The set of actions required to bring the product to the customer
  188. Valued customer
    A customer who is positively disposed to the organisation, is easy to deal with, and can create financial value for the organisation
  189. Volume flexibility
    The action of increasing capacity flexibility by changing the level of output to cope with fluctuating demand
  190. Walk-through audit
    An appraisal of a service operation undertaken by a surrogate customer aimed at evaluating and improving the service. The 'customer' experiences the entire service process and uses a check-list or questionnaire to guide her assessment.
  191. Word-of-Mouth (WOM)
    The action of a customer informing friends or relatives about a previous service experience that she has found to be particularly satisfactory or particularly unsatisfactory
  192. Yield management
    A type of capacity management that focuses on determining the maximum revenue obtainable from the various customer segments served by the available capacity, e.g. airlines filling planes with different classes of passengers
  193. Zone of tolerance
    A range of acceptable variance in service performance levels, in accordance with the customer's expectations of service quality
Card Set
Service concepts fc.csv
Terms associated with the field of service delivery - 3rd Level University Paper