Lecture Respiratory System Part 1

  1. Name and explain the four stages of respiration
    1. Pulmonary Ventilation (breathing): movement of air in and out of the lungs

    2. External Respiration: O2 and CO2 exchange between the lungs and blood.

    3. Transport: of O2 and CO2 using the blood

    4.  Internal Respiration: O2 and CO2 exchange between the tissues and the blood.
  2. Define the respiratory zone and what is it includes.
    Site of gas exchange

    Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli
  3. Define conducting zones and what it includes
    Conduits of air

    • Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses
    • Pharynx
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi and their branches
  4. Name the functions of the Nose
    • 1. provides and airway for respiration
    • 2. moistens and warms the entering air
    • 3. filters and cleans inspired air
    • 4.  Serves as a resoning chamber for speech
    • 5. Houses olafactory receptors
  5. Describe the regions of the nose
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  6. Describe the anatomy of the nasal cavity
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  7. What filters course particles from inspired air through the nose?
  8. Describe the respiratory mucosa
    Pseudostratified ciliate columnar with goblet cells

    Mucous and serous secretions contain lysozyme and defensins as a natural antibiotic

    Cilia move contaminated mucus posteriorly to throact

    Inspired air is warmed by plexuses of capillaries and veins

    sensory nerve endings trigger sneezing
  9. What are the functions of the Nasal Mucosa and Conchae?
    during inhilation: filter, heat, and moisten air

    during exhalation: reclaim heat and moisture
  10. Describe the Nasopharynx
    Air passage posterior to nasal cavity

    lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium

    soft palate and uvula close the nasopharynx during swallowing

    Pharyngeal tonsils (Adenoids when swollen) on posterior wall

    Pharyngotympanic (auditoty) tubes open in lateral walls with tubal tonsils
  11. Describe the Oropharynx
    passage for food and air

    lined with stratified squamous epithelium

    isthmus of tha fauces: opening to the oral cavity

    palantine tonsils on the lateral walls of fauces

    Lingual tonsils at base of tongue
  12. Describe the laryngopharynx
    passage for both air and food

    extends to the larynx where it is continuous with esophogus

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  13. What kind of cartilage is the larynx?
    • 8 hyaline cartilages:
    • thyroid, cricoid, paired artynoid, paired cuniform, paired corniculate

    • 1 elastic cartilage:
    • epiglottis

    • tracheal cartilage is also hyaline
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  14. Whats the difference between the vestibular folds and the vocal folds?
    • Vestibular folds are superior and are called false vocal cords
    • -no part in sound production
    • -help close glottis during swallowing

    Vocal folds are true vocal cords that vibrate to produce sound

    the vocal ligaments are attached to the thyroid cartilage by the arytnoid cartilages and contain elastic fibers
  15. How is the sound of your voice produced?
    Speech: intermittent release of expired air while opening and closing the glottis

    Pitch: determined by the length and tension of vocal cords

    Loudness: force of air

    chambers of the pharynnx, oral, nasal, and sinus cavities amplify and resonate sound

    sound is shaped into language by muscles of the pharynx, tongue, soft palate, and lips
  16. How does the larynx act as a sphincter?
    Prevents air passage

    • Example: Valsalva's Maneuver
    • -glottis closes to prevent exhalation
    • -abdominal muscles contract
    • -intra-abdominal pressure rises
    • -helps to empty the rectym or stabilize trunk during heavy lifting
  17. Describe the 3 layers of the Trachea (windpipe)
    1. Mucosa: ciliated pseudostratified epithelium with goblet cells

    2. Submucosa: connective tissue with seromucous glands that secrete mucus sheets

    3. Adventitia: outtermost layer composed of connective tisse that encloses the C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage
  18. What is the respiratory tree?
    The branching of the Bronchi

    23 orders of branching, beginning with the primary bronchi at the carina

    Lobal (Secondary) bronchi into segmental (tertiary) bronchi
  19. What is the difference between bronchi and bronchioles other than their diameter?
    Cartilage rings give way to plates as they get loser to bronchioles

    Bronchioles do not have cartilage, but have smooth muscle

    Epithelium turns from pseudostratified columnar into cuboidal in bronchioles.  Goblet cells and cilia disappear
  20. What makes up the bulk of the lungs volume?
    about 300 million alveoli

    main site of gas exchange
  21. What is the respiratory membrane?
    The blood air barrier

    alveolar and capillar walls and their basement membrane
  22. What is the makeup of alveoli?
    Simple squamous epithelium (Type I cells)

    Scattered Cuiboidal cells (Type II cells): secretre surfectant and antimicrobioal protetins

    surrounded by fine elastic fibers

    contain pores: connecting alveoli, allow pressure to be equalized, provide alternative air routes for collapsed or damaged tissue

    house alveolar macrophages that keep surfaces sterile
  23. Describe the lungs
    • Right: 3 lobes separated by oblique and horizontal fissure. 10 bronchopulmonary segments
    • Left: 2 lobes separated by oblique fissue-has cardiac notch. 8-9 bronchopulmonary segments

    outside surface covered by hexagonal lobules that are served by bronchioles and their branches

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  24. What are the two circulations of blood supply to the lungs?
    Describe them
    • Pulmonary circulation: (low pressure, high volume)
    • *remember it is opposite of the rest of the body
    • -pulmonary arteries deliver systemic venous blood
    • -lie anterior to main bronchi
    • -pulmonary veins carry 02 blood back to heart

    • Systemic Circulation (high pressure low volume)
    • -bronchial arteries supply blood to lung tissue (run along branching bronchi)
    • -arise from the aorta and enter lung at hilum
    • -supply all lung tissue EXCEPT alveoli (they get it from the pulmonary circulation)

    bronchial veins anastome with pulmonary veins

    most venous blood is carried back to the heart by pumonary veins

  25. Describe the pleura
    Double layered serosa

    Parietal pleura on thoracic wall and superior face of diaphram

    visceral pleura on the external lung surface

    pleural fluid fills slitlike pleaural cavity

    provides lubrication and surface tension
  26. Why is alveolar surface tension important?
    Because of elastic recoil, the lungs always assume the smallest size possible.Surface tension on the alveoli also reduce its size (draws water molecules close together where it meets gas)

    this promotes atelectasis! (collapse!)

    • Surfectant (Secreted by Type II cells) Saves the day!
    • -detergent like lipid protein complex
    • -reduces surface tension and discourages alveolar collapse
    • -insufficient quantity in premature infants causes infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS)
  27. What is Lung Compliance?
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    • A meaure of the change in lung volume that occurs with a given change in  traqnspulmonary pressure

    • Normally high due to:
    • distensibility of lung tissue
    • alveolar surface tesnion

    *the higher the CL the easier it is to expand the lungs
  28. What diminishes Lung Compliance?
    • Nonelastic scar tissue (fibrosis)
    • reduced production of surfectant
    • decreased flexibility in the thoracic cavity

    • *homeostatic imbalances
    • -deformities of the thorax
    • -ossification of the costal cartilages (common in elderly)
    • -paralysis of intercostal muscles
  29. What is COPD?
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Exemplified by chronic bronchitis (chronic excessive mucus) and emphysema

    irreversible decrease in the ability to force air out of the lungs (reduced FEV)

    • 80% of patients have a history of smoking
    • dyspnea: labored breathing
    • coughing and frequent pulmonary infections
    • most victims develop respiratory failure (hypoventiliation) accompanies by respiratory acidosis
  30. What are the two types of emphysema?
    Emphysema is a permanent enlargement of the alveolar and destruction of alveolar walls

    Pink Puffer: works hard to maintain ventilation and is often red in the face

    Blue Bloater: right side heart failure has reduced oxygen.  Air trapping frequently cuases bloated chest
  31. Describe Asthma
    characterized by coughing, dyspnea, wheezing, and chest tightness

    active inflammation is an immune response caused by release of interleukins, productions of IgE, and recruitment of inflammatory cells

    airways thickened with inflammatory exudate magnify the effect of bronchospasms
  32. Describe TB
    Infectious disease caused by teh bacterium mycobacterium tuberculosis

    symptoms include fever, night sweats, weight loss, a racking cough, and spittig up blood

    treatment entails a 12 month course of antibiotics
  33. Describe lung cancer and the 3 most common types
    leading cause of cancer deaths in North America for both men and women

    90% of all cases result of smoking

    • 3 Most common types
    • 1. Squamous cell carcinoma (20-40%) in bronchial epithelium
    • 2. Adenocarcinoma (~40%) originates in the peripheal lung areas
    • 3. Small cell carcinoma (~20%) contains lymphocyte-like cells that originate in the primary bronchi and subsequently metastasizes
  34. Describe the development aspects of the Respiratory system before birth
    Olfactory placodes invaginate into olfactory pits by 4th week

    laryngotracheal buds are present by 5th week

    mucosae of the bronchi and lung alveoli are present by the 8th week

    by the 28th week, a premature baby can breathe on its own

    during fetal life, the lungs are filled with fluid and blood bypasses the lungs

    gas exchange takes place via the placenta
  35. Describe the development aspects of the Respiratory system AFTER birth
    At birth, respiratory centers are activated, alveoli inflate, and lungs begin to function

    respiratory rate is highest in newborns and slows until adulthood

    lungs continue to mature and more alveoli are formed until young adulthood (any addtl alveoli are lost if start smoking young)

    respiratory efficiency decreases in old age
Card Set
Lecture Respiratory System Part 1
lecture study guide for A&P II Exam II