When did the Republic start to decline?
When single rules started to become too powerful.
What was part of the reason that Caesar was killed?
because he tried to set himself up as a king
This ruler was:
Adopted by his great uncle Julius in 44 BC (son of a god)
Senate feared his popularity and military command.
He had complete control of the Military and had government control
Wanted to weaken the power of the senate and promote “World Peace.”
- No clear separation of church and state anywhere in the ancient world.
- Augustus was not the only emperor of Rome but “pontifex maximus” or high priest - a title later inherited by the popes.
What was the Basic code of Law for Rome?
What were some things that Caesar Augustus accomplished?
- Added the road system (53,000 miles of paved roads)
- Postal system and other city infrastructure
- Standard currency system
- Improved harbors
Died in AD 68
Declared a public enemy but the senate and hunted by his own guards.
Slit his own throat with the help of his servant
Shared power with mother and his Advisor, Seneca
Later killed his mother and her husband
Popularly believed that he would return to life, particularly after the reign of one of his successors, Domitian.
It was during the reign of ________ that the Book of Revelation was written.
He Persecuted the Christians more than anyone.
He is the “beast” in Revelation whose name is 666 in Hebrew and Latin.
Rumored to have set Rome on fire.
Blamed the Christians for the fire
Claimed a third of the charred city in order to build his own palace.
Brought Stability after the “crazies” of the late Julio-Claudians.
What was the golden age prosperity funded by?
conquering rich territories (especial Trajan’s conquering of Dacia)
Who did the most to expand the empire to its greatest size (Conquered what is now Great Britain)?
What were two challenges of the golden age?
- Rome faced with maintaining territories
- Traditional values (Stoicism) begin to weaken
Who had the idea: It has to be more than a city; it had to be an ideal that people could rally around.
Was Emperor Marcus Aurelius a philosopher?
What was life like in the golden age?
- Entertainment & Pleasure
- Prosperity through trade and population expansion
What was life like after the golden age?
- Good and bad emperors
- Unsuited for Governance
- Many boy emperors
Why did the Germans invade Rome?
because they were being pushed out by the huns.
What did using the name Caesar represent?
The emperors were title crazy.
What did Niccolo Machiavelli state that we learn from history about the many good and bad emperors of Rome?
- The adopted ones were good.
- The ones who became emperor by birth were bad.
Vision of a burning Christian symbol (chi-rho)
United the troops
Gave them courage that “a god” wanted them to win
What was the Edict of Milan?
People could believe whatever they wanted
Substituted Christianity for emperor worship
Which city was built on Byzantium?
Constantinople was also known as?
In Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Gibbons attributes the fall of the roman empire to what confusion?
Confusing Christian love with the need for military power.
In this period, All emperors, except one (Julian the Apostate) were Christian.
In this time period, Romans stopped joining the army and so mercenaries were used instead
Angles and Saxons
What event traditionally marks the end of the period of Antiquity?
Fall of the Roman Empire (476 ad)
What led to Roman Success? (7 things)
- Kept their empire (military Discipline)
- Passion for the legal system
- Fairness in Roman Law
- Inclusion: (Gave Citizenship, Granted land)
- Appealing lifestyle
- Strong Leaders
What caused Rome to fail? Lack of creativity (3 things)
- Loss of good leaders
- Loss of values
- Reliance on mercenaries
What are 3 scholarly explanations for the fall of Rome?
- Invasion by Germanic tribes who had been pushed down by the huns
- Increased incidence of Disease and epidemics causing economic woes and social dislocation
- Lack of leadership and patriotism
What did Eugene K. Von Fange say about the cycles of civilizations?
- Great nations often begin with a mix of fortuitious circumstances and a powerful leader.
- After generations the people bask in their past success and forget about the future.