Tech 201 Ch 9 - Hellenism

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  1. Hellenism began after the end of what period?
    Classical Greece
  2. Which country called itself "Hellas"?
  3. Hellenism is the fusion of what two cultures?
    • Hellenic (Greek)
    • Non-Hellenic
    • *Hybrid Greek Non-Greek Culture
  4. How did Macedonia come to dominate Greece?
    • Philip’s innovations in war
    • Added Cirisa (18 ft Spear) to the Phalanx Unit
    • Oxibellies (bolt shooter). Standing crossbow -- First Catapult
  5. As a young boy he tamed a spirited horse naming it Bucephalus (Ox-headed)
  6. Who was a role model and offered encouragement to Alexander?
  7. Who said, “My Father will get ahead of me in everything, and will leave nothing great for me to do”
  8. What did Alexander do at age 13?
    Spent 3 yrs studying under Aristotle (science, medicine, government,philosophy, art, rhetoric, geography, etc.)
  9. What did Alexander do at age 16?
    Given command of Macedonia while Philip II went to war against Byzantium
  10. What did Alexander do at ages 18-19?
    Lead part of Philip’s cavalry and appointed ambassador to Athens
  11. What did Alexander do at age 20?
    Became king of Macedonia after his father was assassinated
  12. Who tutored Alexander?
  13. How was Alexander religious?
    memorized and carried with him a copy of the Illiad
  14. Which Greek territories revolted when Alexander was made King?
  15. What did Alexander do in response to Thebes' revolt to him being made King?
    He destroyed Thebes except the temples and house of the poet Pindar
  16. What action initiated Alexander to rule in Asia?
    Cut the Gordian Knot
  17. Who said, "I would rather live a short life of glory than a long one of obscurity.”
    Alexander the Great
  18. How did Alexander treat families of countries conquered?
    • Spared families of conquered kings
    • This won him the cooperation of the families
  19. How did Alexander treat conquered soldiers?
    • Treated conquered soldiers with respect
    • This convinced some conquered soldiers to switch sides and support him
  20. How did Alexander honor the dead?
    • Strongly religious burials
    • Exempted their families from further military duty and from taxes
  21. How was Alexander's empire divided? (4 regions)
    • Greece - Mixture
    • Pergamum - Antigonus
    • Persian area and India - Seleucus
    • Egypt - Ptolemy
  22. Legacy of Alexander the Great. (2 things)
    • Conquered practically the entire known world and ushered in the Hellenistic age
    • Greek culture was disseminated and preserved for over a thousand years with the help of Rome and Christianity
  23. What was the Language of the Eastern Mediterranean through Roman and Byzantine Empires (until 1453 A.D.)?
  24. What is a a fusion of different beliefs, practices or structures? (Gr. Sunkretismos = “an alliance of Cretans”)
  25. Port city became the capital
    Priest class became bureaucrats for running the government
    money introduced
    Greek became the language of the people
    Run like a business
    Ptolmies in Egypt
  26. Capital of Egypt for1,000 yrs (until Muslim invasion)
    Libraries built collecting every known book of the ancient world (~700,000)
    Intellectual center of the world
    Lighthouse was one of the seven wonders of the world.
  27. Greeks felt that knowledge was critical
    All ships entering Alexandria must submit books for copying
    Records kept as scrolls
    Alexandrian library
  28. Jewish scholars in Alexandria translated the Hebrew scriptures into Greek
    Tradition: 70 scholars in 70 days
    This was the Bible used by the early Christians (Hebrew was unknown at the time)
    This is the book from which Old Testament references within the New Testament were taken
    This became the authority for later translations of the Bible
  29. Which direction was early greek written?
    right-to-left, just like Phoenicians and Egyptians.
  30. What was boustrophedon ("ox-turning") writing?
    Left to Right, Right to Left alternating
  31. By end of 5th century BC, which direction of writing was standard?
    Left to right
  32. This writing medium was:
    Durable if baked
  33. This writing medium was:
    Durable if dry and little use
  34. This writing medium was:
    Durable (weather resistant)
    Parchment or Vellum
  35. 3 problems with the scroll:
    • Papyrus and parchment
    • Papyrus became brittle
    • Cumbersome for lengthy works
  36. This type of writing medium was invented  in Pergamum (3rd century BC) using sheep skin.
  37. A _______ is printed while a ________ is handwritten.
    Book, Codex
  38. Lived in Alexandria
    Compiled Elements of Geometry
  39. Lived in Sicily
    Trained at Alexandria
    Greatest scientist until Newton
  40. Who Developed system similar to calculus?
  41. Who Calculated value for pi (∏) to accuracy of 0.0002?
  42. Who Devised Scientific notation (5 x 107) to go beyond a myriad (10,000)?
  43. Who came up with the Buoyancy Principle?
  44. Who Proposed heliocentric universe?
    Aristarchus of Samos
  45. Who:
    Director of Alexandria Library
    Claimed that a ship could sail west to India.
    Calculated circumference of the earth (<2% error)   
    Given x & y,  α = arctan(y/x) = 7˚
  46. Greatest Experimenter of the Ancient World
    Wind Powered Organ
    Fire Engine
  47. Hellenistic art often showed what?
    Movement, usually dramatic
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Tech 201 Ch 9 - Hellenism
Chapter 9 - Hellenism
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