stature estimation

  1. what is stature?

    adult stature?
    adult stature (with age +sex) is vital part of biological profile provided by law enforcement when describing missing person, victim or assailant
  2. what do we want to get when discussing stature?
    best estimate of persons living height
  3. measured stature?

    forensic stature

    cadaver stature
    offficial statutre (recorded by medical practitioners or military)

    forensic stature - self reported, given by friends, relatives or from drivers license.

    measurement of deceaced individual
  4. problems with measured stature
    incorrect technique (inter-observer error) e.g. measured with shoes or without

    time of day for measurement (get shorter as day goes on due to compression of intervertebral discs and heel pads)
  5. problems with forensic stature
    people generally tend to overestimate their height. 

    • men - 1 cm
    • woman 0.5 cm

    • height changes over time
    • -45+ lose height due to cartilage in joints wearing down
    • -not finished growth when heing on drivers license recorded
  6. problems with cadaver stature
    • typical methods for cadaver measurement can add up to 5cm to stature estimate.
    • --> gravity stretches the cadaver out.
  7. Methodological problems

    -how should bones be measured? - problems
    should physiological lenth or maximum length of femur be used?

    max length only takes into consideration of one condyle for example

    must be aware of proper measuring techniques
  8. problems when measuring tibia?
    should include or exclude medial malleoulus and intercondylar eminence?
  9. methodological problems

    secular change in height

    --what should be considered as a reult
    i.e modern populations are considerably taller on avg then populations in past

    bone collections might now be representative of todays population

    there is a correlation between height and gdp
  10. anatomical method? (fully)

    why was it originally developed?

    who is it good for?
    • best method to use if you can
    • - orgiginally developed to identify french soldiers who died at mauthausen (concentration camp)
    • - method based on 102 males
    • -when tested , method found effective for femalesand other population groups.
  11. how to use the anatomical method? (fully)
    measure all skeletal components that contribute to height

    • 1. cranial height (max legnth between bregma and baison)
    • 2.vertebral column height (starting from C2, C3-7, thoracics, lumbards and first sacrum)
    • 3. leg length - femur -use physiological length (to both condyles), tibia (including medial malleolus but excluding ..
    • 4.foot height, max height of talus + calcaneus
  12. Anatomical method - wha tto do with measurements?
    add up to obtain a skeletal heights then use 1 or 2 equations depending if age is known or not to get living stature

    age factor important because you change height with age
  13. if sex is known what can we do with anatomical values

    what do these values account for?
    add extra variables for more accuracy

    account for missing soft tissue that we have.
  14. anatomical method (fully)

    good why?

    bad why?
    good- not population specific as differences in body proportions intrinsically built into methodology

    bad -more time consuming and skeleton must be very well preserved (must have all bits)
  15. Revised method vs fully

    who revised it?
    fully said estimate comes within 1 cm but Raxter found it was underestimated by 2.5 cm

    revised +/- 4.5cm in 95% confidence
  16. stature based on vertebral column (Tibbets)
    • measured height of anterior vertebral bodies from C2-L5
    • IN mm

    developed different regression formulae for males and females - but can be used for people of all geographic groups (sex dependent, geographically independent)

    males - 38% contirbute to total height

    female - 41% contribute to total height
  17. wha tis the most popular method of stature legnth?

    based on what assumption

    who collected the data? from where
    Long bone length

    based on observation that tall people= long arms and legs

    Trotter and Gleser

    From dead soldiers from the war (II) +korean war
  18. stature based on long bone length

    measured in 

    in CM

    • Controversy on how tibia was measures
    • --> eventually decided not to include medial malleous UNLIKE FULLYS METHOD
  19. summary of TROTTER AND GLESSER data showed?

    what is needed for these equations

    which long bones give you best indication to height?
    Strong relationship between length of long bones and stature

    assymmetry between left and right very minor, so doesnt matter which side used to calculate stature

    strong corrrelation between length of individual bones

    sex and ancestry matter to equations

    leg bones give best indication
  20. what if we dont have long bones?

    who did the measurement?
    metacarpals and metatarsals can be used - but errors are much larger

    • -measured from bottom to tip (mm)
  21. metatarsals measured in what units?


  22. stature based on fragmentary long bones

    who developed a regression fromula to reconstruct legnth of long bone?
  23. dont have to remember all different ponit of stature based on fragmentary bones

    but essentially
    we can use segments of a bone to find out what the completelength was
  24. age 

    correction factors
    shrinkage starts at age 45 and increases over time

    we must subtract a certain amount of length from a persons high depending on the persons age due to cartialage, joint and vertebral compressions.
  25. bone shrinkage

    what do bones shrink?

    on avg how much do bones shink?

    what if person partially fleshed
    bone looses fluids and shink

    1.5% compared to bone in living individual

    dont worry about it - they wont be dried out.
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stature estimation
stature estimation