1. "America is the land of the second chance and when the gates of the prison open, the path ahead should lead to a better life", was said by_______________
    George W. Bush
  2. The conditional release of a prisoner, prior to completion of the imposed sentenced, under the supervision of the stateis called________.
  3. The scale developed from a risk-screening instrument used to predict parole outcome is the _________________.
    Salient Factor Score
  4. Early release based on the paroling authority's assessment of eligibilty is called _____________.
    Discretionary release
  5. Early release after a time period specified and set by law is called ____________.
    Mandatory release
  6. An executive act that removes both punishment and guilt is called a __________.
  7. From 1775 through 1856, English offenders were sent to _________ as punishment for crimes.
  8. The parole concept has its roots in an 18th century English penal practice of __________.
    Indentured servitude
  9. Pardons are granted by ________________.
    Presidents and Governors
  10. Prisoners who were sent to Australia, and then committed further felonies, were sent to __________.
    Norfolk Island
  11. In 1840, British Navy Captain ____________ was appointed superintendent of Norfolk Island.
    Alexander Maconochie
  12. The first legislation authorizing parole in the United States was enacted in ___________.
    Massachusetts in 1837
  13. The first reformatory to implement an extensive parole program was ___________.
    Elmira reformatory
  14. Zebulon Brockway was the first superintendent of ____________.
    Elmira reformatory
  15. The Wickersham Commission was appointed by President__________________.
    Herbert Hoover
  16. Captain Maconochie would have preferred an _________ sentencing model.
  17. A person who is conditionally released from prison to community supervision is referred to as a ____________.
  18. A scale, developed from a risk-screening instrument, used to predict parole outcome is called________
  19. A national survey of a parole board members said that the most important factors in the decision to grant or deny parole was the _________.
    Nature of inmate offence
  20. A correctional agency that has the authority to ggrant parole is a called a ________.
    Parole board
  21. The recidivism rate in the United States is ______.
  22. The process of transition that offenders make from prison or jail to the community is called________.
  23. The earliest date on which an inmate might be paroled is called his _____________.
    Parole eligibility date
  24. At least_________ percent of the inmates who enter prisons eventually return to the community.
  25. The region of the country with the highest number of parolees is the ___________.
  26. Women make up ______ percent of the parole population.
  27. According to BJS, _______ percent of the people discharged from parole in 2006 completed the terms of their community supervision without returning to prison or jail or absconding.
  28. The normal patterns of behavior expected of those holding particular social positions are called__________.
  29. The patterns of behavior expected of correctional staff members in particular jobs are called__________.
    Staff roles
  30. The mistreatment of Iraqi prisoners occurred at _________.
    Abu Ghriab prison
  31. The torture of Iraqi prisoners occurred under President__________.
    George W. Bush
  32. Wardens, superintendents, assistant superintendents and others charged with running the institution and its programs are called__________.
    Administrative staff
  33. Majors, captains and correctional officers charged with maintaining order and security are called_____________.
    Custodial staff
  34. Psychologists, psychiatrists, medical doctors, nurses, teachers and others who contract with the institution to provide services are called___________.
    Program staff
  35. The _________ would be most involved in encouraging prisoners to participate in educational, vocational and treatment programs.
    Program staff
  36. Correctional officers have power by virtue of their positions within the organization. They have formal authority to command. This is called _________.
    Legitimate power
  37. Inmates' belief that a correctional officer can and will punish disobedience gives the officer __________.
    Coercive power
  38. The inmates' perception that certain correctional officers have valuable skills gives rise to ___________.
    Expert power
  39. When an officer is using "persuasive diplomacy" it is called ___________.
    Referent power
  40. Correctional officers dispense both formal and informal sanctions to induce cooperation among inmates. This is called__________.
    Reward power
  41. Time taken off an inmate's sentence for participating in certain activities such as going to school, learning a trade and working inprison is called _____________.
    Gain Time
  42. The tension between prison staff members and inmates that arises out of the correctional setting is called____________.
    Structured conflict
  43. The beliefs, values and behaviors of staff that differ greatly from those of the inmates are called____________.
    Staff subculture
  44. Guidelines for correctional officers---e.g., always go to the aid of an officer in distress, don't "lug" drugs, don't rat on other officers---are all part of ______.
    Officer code
  45. While blacks account for 12% of the U.S. population they account for _____ of the correctional workforce.
  46. Many prison movies have been made in recent years. Your text shows Tom Hanks in ___________ as an example of these movies.
    The Green Mile
  47. There are many common personality types that have been identified in correctional officers. The _______ likes to give orders and seems to enjoy the feeling of power that comes from ordering inmates around.
  48. The correctional officer that believes that close association with inmates will make it easier to control the inmates is called a ___________.
  49. A ________ usually interacts little with other officers and does the minimum necessary to get through the workday.
  50. The ___________ constantly finds problems with the way the institution is run or with existing policies and rules.
  51. A correctional officer who provides commodities to the inmate population is a called a ________.
  52. Those officers who are responsible for supervising inmates in housing areas are called __________.
    Block officers
  53. Those officers assigned to security (or gun) towers, wall posts and perimeter patrols are called _____________.
    Perimeter security officers
  54. Those officers who supervise inmates in the prison athletic areas or recreational areas are called ___________.
    Yard officers
  55. Officers who control the keys and weapons and sometimes oversee visitation are called ___________.
    Administrative officers
  56. Officers who oversee the work of individual inmate work crews are called ____________.
    Work detail supervisors
  57. ___________ officers are experienced correctional officers who know and can perform almost any custody role in the institution. They can replace any officer who is absent.
  58. The majority of inmates in the Federal Bureau of Prisons have been convicted of _____.
    Drug offenses
  59. Which of the following statements is most true?
    Penitentiaries are relatively modern social institutions and their development is distinctly American.
  60. The __________ advocated a prison system which shifted the emphasis from punishing the body to reforming the mind and soul.
  61. The first historical phase of prison discipline, involving soiltary confinement in silence instead of corporal punishment was called the ____________.
    Pennsylvania System
  62. This system called for solitary confinement at labor, with instruction in labor, morals and religion.
    Pennsylvania System
  63. This system called for silence but allowed the inmated to work together in groups.
    The Auburn System
  64. The Auburn system was also known as the __________.
    The congregate system
  65. ______________ of isolation and silence became popular in Europe.
    The Pennsylvania System
  66. The first reformatory for young men opened at ______________.
    Elmira, New York, in 1876
  67. The ___________ was influenced by progressive beliefs that education and science were vehicles for controlling crime.
    Reformatory Era
Card Set
ch. 7-9